Portsmouth music scene

THE THIRTIES


30

1930 Was the year when the song hits were full of optimism, to counteract the Depression and post-Wall-Street-Crash-Street-Crash- They had titles like "Sunny Side Up," "With A Song In My Heart" and "Give Yourself A Pat On The Back." end one big hit was called "If I Had A Talking Picture Of You," which acknowledged the boom in talking motion pictures.
the Thirties saw increased pace in scientific research and discoveries that were to have their full impact in later decades. Early experiments with high definition television, the splitting of the atom, rocket, radar and let engine research went on as a creeping tide of fear and violence emanated from Nazi Germany and Hitler's Third Reich.
Standards of living rose for many, while there was still mass unemployment.
Gradually the optimism faded and the harsh reality of war loomed large on the horizon. The tempo of life quickened. By the end of the Thirties the popular songs had titles like "There'll Always Be An England" and "We're Gonna Hang Out The Washing On The Siegfried Line." Throughout it all, the radio relayed music as it poured unabated from America.
As the talkies arrived, so Hollywood was quick to utilise music and its ready-made stars. In 1930 Paul Whiteman and his Orchestra made a film in Hollywood called The King Of Jazz, a title disputed ever since by critics.
It was the first of a succession of key musicals which began with Al Jolson's The Jazz Singer and continued through The Glenn Miller Story, to Rock Around The Clock and Woodstock. The bandleaders themselves were not exactly romantic, heartthrobs. Their main concession to showmanship was to wear a tuxedo and twirl a baton.
Compared to the androgynous appearance of the pop stars of later decades, it requires an effort of the imagination to recall that the public revered figures who looked more like insurance salesmen or head waiters than glamorous showbiz celebrities. But if the podgy figure of Paul Whiteman resembled an avuncular New York stockbroker, there were men who sent the ladies' hearts fluttering and brought them out in hot flushes - the crooners.
Crooning was the singing of romantic ballads, preferably while wearing a white tuxedo under a Californian moon in the month of June. Crooners adopted a misty-eyed stance and pearly-toothed smile and often clutched at a ukulele, which, as it produced a singularly unromantic noise, was rarely played. One of the earliest crooners was Rudy Vallee, and it is a measure of his success that Vallee was sued in 1930 by one Will Osborne, who claimed 500,000 dollars and the title of the world's first crooner, wring the early Thirties, Vallee recorded many hits with his band, including "As Time Goes By," "Fare Thee Well Annabelle," "Life Is Just A Bowl Of Cherries," "On The Good Ship Lollipop" and "You're Driving Me Crazy."
But as the Thirties progressed, Vallee's crown was to be seized by another young crooner with jazz roots - Bing Crosby, who started singing at his college glee club with a friend, AI Rinker.
They eventually organised a dance band called the Musicaladers with Bing drumming and singing duets. One night, the King Of Jazz, Paul Whiteman, dropped by and signed the singers to a contract. A third member was added, Harry Barris, and the three became the world-famous Paul Whiteman's Rhythm Boys vocal trio.
Bing appeared in The King Of Jazz movie but left Whiteman after three years and worked as a soloist at the Coconut Grove in Los Angeles, which began a life-long career as a successful singer and movie actor playing romantic leads and light comedy. His radio signature tune for many years was "Please," and he was part composer of one of his most celebrated hits, "Where The Blue Of The Night."
Bing recorded with the Mills Brothers; and also with many jazz orchestras, including Duke Ellington, Don Redman, Isham Jones and Guy Lombardo. The Four Mills Brothers were John, Herbert, Donald and Harry, who specialised in singing like instruments. They became known across America as a result of broadcasts on CBS and in 1934 visited London and played at the Palladium and the Royal Command Performance. The Mills Brothers recorded with Bing, and Duke Ellington.
Appart from The King of Jazz, there was also a "Queen," Sophie Tucker. She was one of the first to make records, for Edison Bell, and as early as 1914 she had led a dance band called the Five Kings Of Syncopation. She was popular, especially with British audiences, throughout the Twenties and Thirties, with such songs as "I'm The Last Of The Red Hot Mommas." There were many other great entertainers in the Thirties whose careers encompassed both hardcore jazz and popular music like pianist Fats Waller and singer Ethel Waters.
There were vocal harmony groups and novelty xylophonists, tap dancers and crooners. But the most dominating force in the Thirties was undoubtedly the dance band.
In the States, dance bands toured by bus and train across a vast continent, black and white segregated by racial barriers, but musicians at least gained mutual respect. The bands played for dancing on a network of ballrooms from Los Angeles to New York.
They could jump the time and space barrier by coast to coast radio hook-ups which transformed local attractions into national stars. It was in February 1930 that Benny Goodman left Red Nichols to form his own band, to be replaced by Jimmy Dorsey, with Glenn Miller added as trombonist.
In this shake-up, a regular feature of band life, were involved three key personalities who would be involved in what later became known as the Swing Era. Swing was orchestrated "syncopated" music of the Twenties. made hotter, slicker and more streamlined. As bands progressed through the Thirties, they ditched the banjo as the mainstay of the rhythm section.
Out went the tuba or sousaphone, and the double bass, with rhythm guitar, became the basis of a much more "modern" sound".
Clarinets became less used in the sections, although Duke Ellington was to remain loyal to the instrument throughout his bandleading career. Basically, the swing bands relied for their power on interplay between the sections of three of four trumpets, two trombones and three or four saxes. It wasn't until the Forties that the baritone sax was used to give extra "bottom" to the reed section.
The interplay was worked out in "head arrangements," playing from memory, as typified by William "Count" Basie's band from Kansas City, or written down by a whole new breed of arrangers.
A pioneer arranger was Fletcher Henderson; who led his own band with a galaxy of star sidemen, notably the first great tenor saxophonist, Coleman Hawkins. Fletcher's arrangements employed a specific device, the use of "call and response" patterns between trumpets, reeds and various combinations of instruments.
These could be piled on top of each other in increasing complexity, utilising the riff, a favourite device of jazzmen, in repeating a particular phrase to create tension and excitement. Duke Ellington took a broader perspective, embracing classical ideas in his tone poems and extended works like "Creole Rhapsody" (1931) while retaining a genuine affinity for the blues and New Orleans roots. Duke's achievements, although less spectacular in the Thirties, captivated and delighted intellectuals and serious composers.
As a band, the Ellingtonians could still compete with the swingers: Count Basie, Jimmie Lunceford, Chick Webb and Cab Calloway.
JAZZ came of age during J the Thirties as a serious pursuit for record col- lectors and journalists, as well as a way of life for musicians. In Britain sprang up Rhythm Clubs, quaintly named perhaps, but meeting places for fanatical devotees who found the BBC ration of dance music insufficient and who had firm ideas about what was true jazz and what was sheer commercialism. Some British enthusiasts eventually found their way to America, where - they did tremendous work in helping the cause of jazz, like Leonard Feather, critic and author of many, books on jazz.
In France, Hugues Panassie was the 'European voice of jazz appreciation, while in America John Hammond gave single-handed material aid and encouragement to an extraordinary array of artists.
Hammond made introductions, staged concerts and produced records which helped Count Basle, Benny Goodman, Lionel Hampton, Charlie Christian, Teddy Wilson and Billie Holiday. But the vast mass of the public were not concerned with the finer points of jazz appreciation. They liked to dance, and bought the records. And in. America the college audience provided an eager support for the burgeoning swing bands. One of the earliest pioneers of "riff" laden swing was the white Casa Loma Orchestra, which was to have a great influence on subsequent bands.
there were many varieties of band: the sweet orchestras which provided waltzes, quicksteps, foxtrots and a whole range- of Latin American dances for plush hotel ballrooms and schmaltzy late night radio listening, like those led by Lawrence Welk and Guy Lombardo.
There were "Mickey Mouse" bands. Kay Kyser's played novelties and sentimental pop tunes. There were also "territory" bands led by men like Tommy Douglas, hard-hitting swing bands playing for black audiences who wanted music with guts. Like Chicago in a previous decade, Kansas City, wide open with gambling and big money, was a hot bed for jazz.
Apart from providing a base for Benny Moten's Band, which later became the Count Basle Orchestra, when the Count took over after Moten's death in 1935, it was also the birthplace of Charlie Parker.
Kaycee had its own kind of swing: hard, driving, and steeped in big city blues displayed by singers like Jimmy Rushing and Joe Turner. When John Ham- inand brought the Basle men to New York in 1936 they caused a sensation.
American big band jazz progressed at such a pace that English fans and musicians were over-whelmed when they heard the first imported 78s.
The precision of the Benny Goodman Orchestra of 1936 had not been heard before, and was to impress even those who thought swing was a travesty of traditional jazz. Indeed as swing became a commercial proposition and the subject of documentary films, Hollywood musicals and newspaper headlines, many jazz purists turned away in disgust, laying the foun- dations for a revivalism which was to explore the roots of New Orleans jazz and the early bluesmen who had been sadly neglected.
A MONG the first of the bluesmen to gain some fame were the boogie woogie pianists; who had been earning their whiskey in the work camps of Texas and in the bars of the big cities. Men like Meade Lux Lewis, who was inspired by Jimmy Yancey, and recorded "Honky Tonk Train Blues" for the first time in 1929.
There were dozens of piano boogie giants like Cripple Clarence Lofton, Pinetop Smith and Romeo Nelson ' -playing before white audiences "discovered" boogie - woogie in the Thirties and it became an overworked fad. The fervour of revivalism, however, brought recognition to a great many - neglected talents, albeit in many cases, lie composer and pianist Jelly Roll Morton, too late to be of use to the artists themselves. Bessie Smith; the Empress of the Blues, had carved herself a huge reputation among black audiences, selling over two million records and becoming a star entertainer on the vaudeville circuit.
But by the Thirties her recording career was over and she was forgotten by the public. Field researchers began to explore the legacy of American blues before it was too late, with Alan Lomax pioneering with recorder and notebook. Other enthusiasts discovered neglected musi- cians like trumpeter William "Bunk" Johnson. who was provided with a set of teeth-to play again. John and Alan Lomax discovered Huddie Ledbetter (Leadbelly), a blues singer who had served at least two prison sentences for murder and attempted homicide and another for assault.
His work songs and folk blues were first recorded by Lomax for America's Library of Congress, Just before his death in 1949 he visited France to play concerts. Though some revivalists branded the swing bands as sell-outs to com- mercialism, they over-looked the real jazz content of the best bands. But those who appreciated the big bands were able to enjoy the golden age of the jazz solaist. At the end of the Twenties and throughout the Thirties, Louis Armstrong had been hailed as a giant, his trumpet playing an inspiration.
But Bix Beiderbecke the legendary cornet player, died in 1931, virtually unrecognised except by fellow musicians. But now the jazz drummers played fewer drums, with greater swing and musical taste. Men like George Wettling, Cozy Cole, Big Sid Catlett, Chick Webb, Sonny Greer, Zutty Singleton, Gene Krupa, Dave Tough and Jo Jones sparked the big bands and small groups.
Others, like Lionel Hampton, introduced new in- struments, the vibraphone, or made early experiments with amplified electric guitar, and electric organ. Excitement reached a peak when the Benny Goodman Orchestra, starring Harry James (trumpet), Gene Krupa (drums) and Benny on clarinet, played an historic concert at New York's Carnegie Hall in 1938 which was recorded live for future generations to study and enjoy.
Fans danced in the aisles when Benny played New York's Paramount Cinema, and once again the Establishment had something to worry over and condemn. Dancing, or rather jiving and jitterbugging, became even more frantic and gymnastic, with dancers throwing each other around like all-in wrestlers, only 15 years or so after a Cincinatti newspaper had decried partners actually embracing each other in ballroom dancing. In Britain, dance music was an established part of social life, and even the sober BBC had its own Dance Orchestra; at first led by Jack Payne, and then from 1932 by Henry Hall.
The Beeb did a bit more pioneering when it opened the world's first public television service from Alexandra Palace in 1936. But television's influence on music then, as now, was minimal. It was left to radio to provide work and opportunities for jazz and dance band musicians. Not that they could always be relied on. In August 1932 the BBC took all dance bands off the air for an entire month and refused to give a reason. But fans could hear Louis Armstrong in person when he came to the London Palladium in 1932, and the same year pianist Nat King Cole made his first appearance in Britain.
British bands recorded extensively under the leadership of men like Roy Fox, Carroll Gibbons, Lou Preager, Geraldo, Ambrose, Lew Stone, Billy Cotton, Harry Roy, Nat Gonella, Jack Payne, Jack Hylton, Jack Jackson and Henry Hall. Singers like Al Bowlly and instrumentalists Charlie Kunz (piano), Jack Jackson (trumpet) and Ivor Mairants (guitar) were very popular. But for fans of "hot music" the greatest and most creative artists were still those from America, and in at least one case from Europe. Jean Baptiste "Django" Reinhardt, a Belgian gypsy guitarist, stunned British admirers with his guitar technique which they heard on recordings made by the Quintet Of The Hot Club Of France with violinist Stephane Grappelly.
British dance band fans were thrilled when they heard the new recordings made by Duke Ellington, Count Basie, Benny Goodman, Cab Galloway, Jimmie Lunceford and later, Artie Shaw and Tommy Dorsey. They were to be wiped out when they heard a new kind of jazz that would stand the music on its head and was already rumbling faintly and rebelliously amid the ranks of swing men as another decade drew to a close and another world war began to spread.

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1930

JANUARY: Fred Elizalde dis- bands and retires after a period of high- endeavour and persistent misfortune Red Nichols will MD Strike Up The Band with music by George and Ira Gershwin Trumpeter Charlie Teagarden joins drummer-leader Ben Pollack at New York's Golden Slipper Jack Hylton signs "hot" musicians pianist Billy Munn and trumpeter Phillippe Brun , Since the advent of talkies 65 London cinemas have dispensed with their bands, putting 600 musicians out of work.
FEBRUARY: Benny Goodman leaves Red Nichols to form his own band and is replaced by Jimmy Dorsey, with Glenn Miller added as trombonist-arranger Billy Cotton and his London Savannah Band leave Charing Cross Road Astoria on March 21 for Streatham Locarno Saxist-leader A1 Lever's Band at Wimbledon Palais includes violinist Joe Loss, who becomes world-famous and enduring band- leader - Ray Noble takes over leadership of New Mayfair orchestra on HMV Prom Carroll Gibbons who has joined EMI sound film venture at Elstree Studios Ocarina en- joys a great vogue thanks to Jack Hylton's recording of " Piccolo Pete."
MARCH: George Elrick, drummer-leader of Aberdeen's Embassy Dance Band, winners of MM dance-band contest at Craiglockhart, becomes singing favourite with Henry Hall's BBC Dance orchestra, leader of his own band and disc-jockey Fred Elizalde ends brief retirement and writes music, produces, plays solo piano and leads his re-formed band in The Intimate Revue at Duchess Theatre Menus B. Winter is first bandleader to do commercial radio, broadcasting with 10-piece outfit on Radio Paris for cigarette makers Carreras Syd Roy's Lyricals break up after 10 years of success around the world.
APRIL: Altoist Arthur Lalley gives up leadership of Ambrose's Blue Lyress at Cafe de Paris to take all-star band into Berkeley Hotel Sax-clarinet-arranger Maurice Winnick leaves Syd Kyte at Ciro's to concentrate on film sessions, enabling him to front a band for the first time Leon Abbey, bandleader at London's Deau-ville Restaurant, is deported as an alien without a labour permit, but remainder of his all-black band can stay, as they are West Indians with British passports Bandleader Herman Darewski breaks new ground by playing at Bentall's Store in Kingston, attracting 35,000 people in 30 days.
MAY: Ambrose leaves Decca to return to HMV To safeguard employment of British musicians, Ministry of labour enforces ban on aliens recording with bands other than those for which they have received permission French trombonist Leo Vauchant Is refused work permit to join Arthur Lalley at Berkeley Hotel and is substituted by homelander Tony Thorpe. Paul Whiteman and his Orchestra finish filming the King of Jazz in Hollywood MM dance band contest at Clapham produces patois bandleaders Fred Medley and Les Ayling You can now make your own gramophone record for is 6d at Langham Radio, in London's Goodge Street Will Osborne, who reckons he was the world's first crooner, sues rival singer Rudy Vallee for 500,000 dollars for claiming the title.
JUNE: Saxist-leader Al Stance returns home to America to play at the Weirs in New Hampshire, but his brothers Ray and Rudy stay in Britain Bandleader Jack Harris signs for Decca American bandleader Ted Lewis, appearing at Kit Cat with 12-piece band including saxist Jimmy Dorsey and trumpeter Muggsy Spanier, is getting 1,000 a week Paul Whiteman slashes size of his band and loses the Rhythm Boys, who leave to film on West Coast Bix Beiderbecke is gigging again and hopes to do some piano solos, for HMV.
JULY: World-famous classical composer Stravinsky is impressed with Jack Hytton's Orchestra and promises to write a special work for it Death of star banjoist Bert Thomas Eddie South and his Alabamians, an all black band from the States, are playing an eight-week season opposite the Selma Four at the Cafe Angials MM foresees the vast potential of television.
AUGUST: Hot violinist Hugo Rignold leaves Jack Hylton after five years and starts career as conductor Streat- ham Astoria opens with a giant stage show featuring 40 artists and musicians A single-sided 10 inch gramophone rec- ord made of cardboard which can be rolled up and put in your pocket, is available in America for 15 cents MM says flagging dance hall business calls for brighter ball- rooms, lively management better bands and more forceful showmanship.
SEPTEMBER: Decca sign saxist Jimmy Dorsey for solo records accompanied by Spike Hughes and his Three Blind Mice Newcomer to radio is Henry Hall, MD at Scotland's Gleneagles Hotel, who becomes resident bandleader at the BBC in 1932, succeeding Jack Payne US bandleader Ted Lewis retires, having achieved his ambition to earn a million dollars. Pianist Gerald Bright takes tango band into Savoy Hotel, starting his world-famous career as Geraldo,
OCTOBER: Howard Jacobs, resident leader for many years at Berkeley Hotel, until he fell out with management and returned to the States, comes back with all-star band at Savoy Hotel at personal salary of 100 a week Clive Erard, pianist-leader at Charing Cross Road Astoria, Is succeeded by violinist-leader Joe Loss, whose long stay there provided a springboard to international fame Paul Whiteman is booked for a season at Cincinnati's Hotel Sinton, Duke Ellington returns to Harlem's Cotton Club, Guy Lombardo is back at New York's Roosevelt Hotel and Ben Bernie Band goes on tour with French film star Maurice Chevalier.
NOVEMBER: MU vetos band leading exchange between Billy Cotton at Ciro's Club in London and Noble Sissle at Ambassadeurs Restaurant in Paris Melville Gideon will conduct 32-piece orchestra at Dominion Theatre to accompany 4,000-a-week French actor-singer Maurice Chevalier Pianist-leader Billy Mason signs for one year at Kit Cat, where he succeeds American trumpet-leader Roy Fox, who becomes a stage, radio and recording celebrity Home recording apparatus is produced by Cairns and Morrison at 4.12s Honolulu's Royal Hawaiian Band make 8,000-mile, six-week journey to play at London's Cafe Anglais.
DECEMBER; Syd Roy puts quartet into the Bat Club led by his sax-clarinettist brother Harry Roy, providing the start of his triumphant career as a popular showman leader Dorsey Brothers resume recording for Parlophone as the Travellers and will shortly start sessions under their own name for Columbia MM points out the danger of gramophone being used instead of bands in ballrooms MU decides to OK Pour-week London-Paris exchange between Billy Cotton and Noble Sissle.

1931

JANUARY: BBC is not satisfied with reception from Piccadilly Hotel since installation of new bandstand and refuses to broadcast resident leaders Sid Bright and Jerry Hoey until remedy is found. After long absence Brunswick records are re-introduced in Britain, featuring Red Nichols, and Ben Bernie Billy Cotton, who switches from Regal to Columbia, is featuring trumpet-vocalist Hat Gonella, who becomes hot soloist and husky singer with Roy Fox and Lew Stone and leader of his own swinging Georgians Paul Whiteman signs singing quartet the King's Jesters Roy Fox forms all-star British band for his 50 a week. appointment as Decca MD Ted Lewis forgets retirement and takes band into Club Rich man.
FEBRUARY: America's Yacht Club Boys create worldrecord for long-distance gig byflying Atlantic to appear forone night at house party inNorth of England at cost ofalmost 1,000 PercivalMackey will conduct 20-pieceall-star pit orchestra forCharles B. Cochran 1931 Revueat London Pavilion in MarchPianist Lew Stone, who isat present doing arrangementsfor Ambrose on HMV, moves on to Roy Fox and personal success as a bandleader.
MARCH: Red Nichols, doubling Girl Crazy and the Hotel New Yorker, augments his band with future leaders Jack and Charlie Teagarden, Benny Goodman and Glenn Miller Handsome crooner Rudy Vallee receives 8,000 letters a day from female fans Decca release first records by Roy Fox, whose band includes pianist-arranger Lew Stone and singer Al Bowliy. S e v e n t e e n-year-old Stanley Black wins MM arranging contest and becomes top pianist and musical director.
APRIL: Squashing rumours of his departure, BBC negotiates new 12 month contract with Jack Payne, who captures trombonist Ben Oakley and trumpet-vocalist Jack Jackson from Arthur Lalley at Savoy Hotel Kit Cat closes, ousting band supplied by Billy Mason, led by violinist George Hurley and featuring cabaret artist Odette Myrtil American alto-sax virtuoso Andy Sanella earns 30,000 a year and employs three arrangers, two copy typists, two clerks and a secretary.
MAY; When Syd Roy first formed his Lyricals 12 years ago it included a novice with a 15s trombone who blew strange noises but is now the country's top trombonist, Lew Davis. Gaumont British buys the closed Kit Kat and re-opens it with a star-studded band led by ex-Savoyard Reg Batten. Decca records down 3s to 2s 6d and 2s to is 6d Gus Armheim is scoring a hit on HMV, featuring rising vocalist Bing Crosby.
JUNE: Billy Cotton is laid up for five weeks with rheumatism and loses his entire brass section, including trumpet-vocalist Nat Gonella, to Roy Fox, who opens with an expensive band, including pianist-arranger Lew Stone and singer Al Bowlly, at the new Monseigneur Restaurant in Piccadilly Louis Armstrong, playing at a club in Chicago, is threatened by gangsters demanding protection money and has to have a police escort. Paul Whiteman gets a divorce from his dancer wife Vanda Hoft, who inspired his hit waltz, "My Wonderful One" Bing Crosby makes his solo recording debut on HMV and Brunswick MM gossip writer Busker reveals that a songwriter can earn as much as 50,000 out of a hit tune.
JULY: Drummer-vocalist Jack Hart leaves Maurice Winnick to form a big band and revive the name Savoy Orpheans American Feder- ation of Musicians refuses to allow British bandleader Jack Hylton to do a series of special concerts promoted by NBC in the States West End hotels ask all staff, including musicians, to accept 10 per cent wage cut to offset declining business caused by worldwide depression Harry Roy will open with 14-piece show band called the RKOlians at new Leicester Square Theatre on August 21 American banjoist Eddie Peabody, who can play 35 instruments, comes over for variety tour.
AUGUST: Film star Buddy Rogers turns bandleader at America's New Yorker Hotel for 700 a week Reg Batten disagrees with musical policy at Kit Cat, where he is succeeded by Percival Mackey, and moves to Chairing Cross Road Astoria, uprooting Joe Loss. Dave Shand, saxist-leader at Aberdeen's Beach Ballroom, joins Jack Hylton and becomes top sideman, sessioneer and melodic alto soloist.
SEPTEMBER: Death of hot trumpet player Bix Beiderbecke, who becomes a legendary figure in jazz Roy Fox, resident at Monseigneur, signs Scots singer Ella Logan, who eventually finds fame in the States Violinist Syd Lipton leaves Billy Cotton to start notable bandleading career at Embassy Rooms, opposite pianist-leader Leslie A. Hutchinson, who achieved popularity as dramatic balladeer " Hutch" Albert Harris, 15and a half year-old pianist with drummer-leader Maurice Burman at Margate's Dreamland Ballroom, becomes leading guitar soloist, sideman and sessioneer.
OCTOBER: Bing Crosby is featured star of CBS, doing six shows a week for 1,500 dollars a week Benny Goodman is musical director of Free For All at Manhatten Theatre with pit band which includes Jack Teagarden and Glenn Miller Bandleader Jack Hart drops attempt to revive name Savoy Orpheans and forms new band for cine-variety.
NOVEMBER: Ambrose makes variety debut with his band at London Palladium, doubling resident job at Mayfair Hotel Death of Ben Evers, who was trumpet-arranger with original Savoy Orpheans Carlton Hotel axes dance music and dispenses with bandleader Jay Whidden Duke Ellington is presented to President Herbert Hoover at the White House Saxist-composer-arranger-leader Don Redman forms own band and will start recording for Brunswick.
DECEMBER: Jack Hylton augments his band to 50 to play in battleship setting supporting feature film Splinters In The Navy at New Victoria Cinema and switches from EMI to Decca, starting with comedy song Rhymes, sung by Leslie Sarony, which became his biggest hit Joe Loss moves from Charing Cross Road Astoria to Kit Cat where tea dances are 2s 6d, dinner dances 5s 6d and supper dances 6s Jazz singer Mildred Bailey sues Brunswick for failure to pay for two records she made for them in defiance of her exclusive contract to Paul Whiteman Denmark tries to ban alien musicians to counter rising unemployment.

1932

JANUARY: British band bridges Atlantic by radio for first time as Jack Hylton does Lucky Strike broadcast from BBC HQ at Savoy Hill Mills Brothers emerge with broadcasts, records and variety in USA Rudy Vallee quits Victor for cheaper Durium Abe Lyman leaves Brooklyn's Fox Theatre because management object to interference caused by his frequent broadcasts Famous songwriter Clarence Williams is accused of murdering Connie's Inn entertainer Hal Bakay in "rough house", but is cleared by dying victim.
FEBRUARY: Harry Roy and RKOlians complete six-month contract at Leicester Square Theatre and go into variety After four years as resident bandleader Jack Payne leaves BBC in March to go on tour and will be succeeded, by Henry Hall, MD for Midland Hotels and pianist-leader at Gleneagles Hotel in Perthshire Louis Armstrong signs recording contract with Victor - Duke Ellington returns to New York after one year absence, apparently caused by trouble with local racketeers Jack Hylton presents French bandleader Ray Ventura and his Collegians at London Palladium Syd Kyle resident bandleader at Piccadilly Hotel, makes radio debut.
MARCH: Jack Payne and his Band will star in 40,000 musical film based on their familiar signature tune, "Say It With Music", produced by Her- bert Wilcox at EIstrce Studios Ronnie Pleydell wins alto sax award with Jack Mann and his Band at MM Swindon dance band contest and becomes star sideman and society bandleader Henry Hall does first broadcast with his BBC Dance Orchestra Red McKenzie signs three-year 300 dollar a week contract with Paul Whiteman, leaving his Mound City Blue Blowers out of work Derrick Turner goes into Cafe de Paris with his New Dixieland Band, which includes Sid Millward, talented lead alto and originator of the comedy Nitwits.
APRIL; American jazz clari-nettist Frankie Teschemacher is killed in car crash in Chicago After seven months of radio in USA, Jack Harris makes European comeback with bands at tires in London and Ambassadors in Paris Roy Fox returns to Monseigneur after three-month illness and finds his band acclaimed on radio and records under leadership of pianist-arranger- Lew Stone Drummer-xylophonist Harry Robbins leaves Jack Hylton to join Henry Hall and Is succeeded by Max Abrams, teacher of many outstanding drummers including Eric Delaney and Jack Parnell.
MAY: Dancing is resumed at London's Carlton Hotel with violinist-leader Maurice Winnick, and Ritz Hotel with Tommy Kinsman, whose band includes popular vocalist Harry Bentley England gets its first taste of hillbilly music with visit of 'Carson Robinson and his Pioneers, five banjo-guitarist singing cowboys with several hit records, including " Barnacle Bill."
JUNE: Jack Hylton and his Orchestra chosen for Royal Command - Performance for third time, a record only equalled by comedian Will Hay First batch of Brunswick records issued by Decca feature Cab Galloway, Duke Ellington, Mills Bros and Boswell Sisters Band organised by clarinet star Benny Goodman and led by crooner Russ Columbo, including tenorist Babe Rusin, pianist Joe Sullivan and drummer Gene Krupa, is playing at New York's Woodmansten Inn.
JULY: American jazz trumpeter Louis Armstrong plays London Palladium for two weeks and MM arranges reduced price seats for fans ranging from 2s 5d to 4s 10d. Lyons experiment with. 15-piece double-handed orchestra led by Fred Garrity at their Oxford Street Corner House. Roy Fox and his Band will make their variety debut at the London Palladium in August. Sax star Frankie Trumbauer leaves Red McKenzie to lead his ewe band in Kansas City.
AUGUST: BBC takes all dance bands off the air for the entire month and refuses to give d reason Altoist Benny Carter forms a 13-piece band for musical show 'on Broadway and possible tour of Europe Louis Armstrong triumphs in Britain, backed up by an all-black band brought over from Paris Adelaide Hall breezes into New York with talented semi-blind pianist from Toledo, Art Tatum, who becomes a jazz great Dave Appollon, US wisecracking bandleader with unorthodox instrumentation, is a hit at London Palladium American pianist-vocalist Nat King Cole makes first appearance in Britain.
SEPTEMBER: London Palladium offer to Boswell Sisters is rejected by their manager, who asks for more money Louis Armstrong does brief provincial tour using three different backing bands in five weeks MM radio-critic Detector blasts BBC for the pittance they pay famous bandleaders such as Jack Hylton and Ambrose, who receive only 40 for a broadcast on which they augment their bands and feature special ar- rangements.
OCTOBER: Roy Fox quits 0 Monseigneur Restaurant after disagreement with man- agement, but his band remains under leadership of pianist-arranger Lew Stone MM asks 22 musical celebrities for their verdict on Louis Armstrong and gets some startling observations, ranging from "a gigantic player and supreme originator of style" (Carroll Gibbons) to "a purely freak musician who occupies an illogical position" (Geraldo).
NOVEMBER: Roy Fox opens with new all-star band at the Cafe Anglais and tries to hold singer At Bowlly to existing contract, but fails because terms are not explicit enough Jack Hylton will be first British bandleader to play in Russia since the Revolution when he does concerts in Moscow and Leningrad Duke Ellington considering visit to Britain, but his expected fee of about 1,700 could prove stumbling block Les Allen replaces Val Rosing as featured vocalist with Henry Hall at BBC.
DECEMBER: Russia cancels visit by Jack Hylton and his Orchestra, saying his kind of entertainment is only for the wealthy, but suspected reason is ending of Anglo-Soviet trade agreement After years of legal dispute, Savoy Hotel wins right to exclusive use of title Savoy Orpheans.

1933

JANUARY: Death of Sydney Firman, leader of BBC's first regular dance band, the London Radio Dance Orchestra, in the Twenties Louis Armstrong stops recording as Victor and Columbia battle over his services Roy Fox is appointed MD for Gaumont British and moves from the Cafe Anglais, where he is succeeded by Harry Roy, to the Kit Cat, where he is playing opposite Joe Loss Jack Hylton's wife, Ennis, resumes her band-leading career with an outfit recruited by pianist Billy Mason.
FEBRUARY; Jack Payne refuses to observe ban on broadcasting - Henry Hall broadcasts several programmes featuring compositions by jazz writer and musician Spike Hughes Selmer introduce the Maccaferri guitar, price 17 gns, played by Len Fillis, Al Bowlly, Ivor Mairants and eventually Django Reinhardt, whose patronage made it a collector's item Highest-paid danceband musician in Britain is believed to be Jack Payne's trumpet-vocalist-comedian Jack Jackson Boosey and Hawkes produce lightweight roll-up megaphone for vocalists designed by Al Bowlly and costing 14s 3d.
MARCH : Pianist-leader Charlie Kunz leaves Chez Henry after eight years to open at Casani's Club for ballroom dancing champion Santos Casani Jack Jackson leaves Jack Payne to form his own band, which will include his sexist colleague E. O. Pogson and Jack Hylton's long-serving guitar-saxist-deputy leader Chappie D'Amato Oscar Rabin completes three-year run at Charing Cross Road Astoria and signs for another two and a half years.
APRIL: Ambrose moves from HMV to Brunswick Duke Ellington and his orchestra will play the London Palladium for two weeks in July and do a special concert for musicians promoted by the MM Lew Stone supplements his resident job at Monseigneur with records for Decca, films for British and Dominion and occasional stage work. Trumpet-leader Jack Jackson will record for HMV billed as John Jackson to avoid confusion with other Jacks.
MAY: German bandleadersMarek Weber and Dajos Bela disband and retire for fear of Nazi persecution Roy Fox and his Band chosen for Royal Command Performance MM American correspondent John Hammond - later to discover Billie Holiday and Bob Dylan - laments death of incomparable Eddie Lang, declaring "no guitarist white or black comes within miles of him."
JUNE: Harlem's notorious night spot, Connie's Inn, is closed by the police. BBC increases studio fee for dance bands from 40 to 100 but still refuses to pay for outside broadcasts Duke Ellington played to over 700 on his opening night at London Palladium. Jazz trumpet player Lea Vauchant becomes first trombone with Boston Symphony Orchestra Louis Armstrong will make quick return to Britain for variety tour, opening at Holborn Empire in July.
JULY: Duke Ellington Orchestra plays two capacity concerts for MM at Elephant and Castle Trocadero Boswell Sisters double London Palladium and Cafe de Paris at 550 a week Refusing to accept salary cut, Ambrose leaves Mayfair Hotel, and is replaced by Harry Roy. BBC agrees to pay dance bands for outside broadcasts, but will control their material MM sponsors- hot record clubs all over country, starting with No. 1 Rhythm Club in London.
AUGUST: Song-plugger Leslie Holmes, featured singer on records with Jack Payne, teams with singer-songwriter Leslie Barony as the Two Leslies Henry Hall's featured vocalist Les Allen starts recording solo on Columbia Louis Armstrong gets a mixed reception at Holborn Empire, with youngsters cheering but older people walking out Ambrose is booked for Embassy Club but his two singers, Sam Browne and Elsie Carlisle, will team as a double act in variety Youngest stage band with average age of 16 is led by saxist Al Berlin Bing Crosby plays crooning schoolmaster in his new film College Humour.
SEPTEMBER: Brunswick and Parlophone vocal trio the Three Keys booked for Monseigneur and London Palladium Jack Harris ends summer season in Cannes and resumes at Cafe de Paris, but is swiftly replaced by Bill Gerhardi Geraldo completes variety tour and returns to Savoy Hotel opposite Carroll Gibbons and Savoy Orpheans Al Bowlly, appearing solo at Holborn Empire is backed by self-taught young pianist from Singapore Monia Liter, who becomes dance band pivot and skilled accompanist - Tipica Orchestra at Kit Cat is led by Annunzio Mantovani, destined for fame as -composer - arranger - conductor Saxist- leader Harry Leader makes recording debut on Panachord.
OCTOBER: Savoy Hotel aban- dons outside broadcasts because acoustic difficulties prevent quality broadcasts by Savoy Orpheans. Several stalwarts leave Jack Payne, including trombonist Ben Oakley, who takes his own 10-piece band into Barnet's Barn Roadhouse. Bandleader Ceres Harper uses mini-bus of own design accommodating 12 musicians and all their equipment.
NOVEMBER: Roy Fox, who is playing Kit Cat, Holborn Empire and Haymarket Capitol at 900 a week, loses singer Ronnie Genarder to Jack Payne and develops promising newcomer Dennis Pountain, who achieves popularity re-named Denny Dennis. Ritz Hotel resumes dancing after four years with violinist-leader Joe Kaye Fred Elizalde is back in Britain after triumphant four-year world tour. as composer - arranger - bandleader Swing violinist Joe -Venuti starts recording for Victor. Cab Galloway and his Band and complete Cotton Club Show due at London Palladium in March Ten famous bandleaders combine for a once-only broadcast as The Stonemasons Bing Crosby may double London Palladium and West End restaurant in May at 1,000 a week.
DECEMBER: Geraldo starts recording an Columbia with new band at Savoy Hotel Sexist Benny Carter is leading all-star band, including trumpeter Bill Coleman and tenorist Lester Young, at Harlem's Savoy. Ballroom Joe Loss and Band, resident at Kit Cat, make stage debut at Haymarket Capital Trumpeter George Swift, playing with Bernard Ette's Band in Germany, is captured by Jack Hylton British reedist Len Bowthorpe joins cosmopolitan band accompanying cabaret star Josephine Baker on two-year world tour.

1934

JANUARY: Split lip KOs Louis Armstrong after some mediocre performances at Holborn Empire BBC bans vocalist Harry Bentley for a month for an announcing indiscretion Ralph Silvester, Irish tenor vocalist with phenomenal range, joins Jack Payne Harry Roy silences rumourmongers by singing for another year at Mayfair Hotel Pianist-arranger Eddie Carroll moves from Lew Stone to Henry Hall, succeeding Jack Phillips who goes on tour with singer Phyllis Robbins Co-op all-star Barnstormers disband after short spell at Barn Roadhouse, but trombonist-leader Ben Oakley stays on to form another band.
FEBRUARY: Jack Hylton decides not to renew recording contract with Decca Hammersmith Palais, where original Dixieland Jazz Band played in 1920, reverts to ballroom after three years as ice rink Barnstormers change name to Masterkeys and replace Roy Fox at Kit Cat, fronted by Canadian compere-dancer-comedian Teddy Joyce, who becomes a great showman/bandleader - US band manager Irving Mills signs Fletcher Henderson for two years and fixes contract with Victor and trip to Britain in April or May CBS invites Ambrose to play at America's Coconut Grove in August-September.
MARCH: Cab Galloway booked for four weeks at London Palladium, does only three, due to falling attendances, and is substituted by Jack Hylton BBC banishes Ambrose Orchestra for broadcasting a prohibited song Drummer-leader Chick Webb moves from Harlem's Savoy Ballroom to New York's Casino de Paris Pat Hyde, 17-year-old accordionist-vocalist dis- covered by MM at Upton Park's Canton Cinema, makes her broadcasting debut with Howard Jacobs and becomes a radio and recording singer. Death of Fred Imeson, shortly after his Imeson Family Symphonies win a dance-band contest at London's Horticultural Hall.
APRIL; Louis Armstrong walks out of MM concert for musicians at London Pavilion at last minute with no explanation, leaving co-star Coleman Hawkins dismayed and distressed BBC forgives Ambrose for banned song lapse and restores his broadcasts. Henry Hall and Jack Hylton are chosen for Royal Command Performance Paul Whiteman asks 1,500 a week to play for dancing at a West End hotel Teddy Joyce quits Kit Cat and forms all-star touring band Lou Preager gets 12-month extension on contract at Romano's Restaurant, with regular broadcasts.
MAY: Henry Hall starts his radio Guest Night, a popular weekly show, which runs for 25 years Mills Bros subjected to racial prejudice when seeking hotel accommodation in London. Billy Merrin receives big reception at Hammersmith Palais. Amazing growth of piano-accordion, with clubs starting all over Britain Bandleader Billy Cotton becomes racing car driver at Brooklands and Southport Severity of entertainment tax closes variety venue Victoria Palace New York session musicians are earning as much as 120 a week Duke Ellington comes 44th in US Poll won by Wayne King, Guy Lembardo and Casa Loma Orchestra.
JUNE: Trumpet-vocalist Nat Gonella leaves Lew Stone and tours with Quaglino's Quartet led by accordionist Frank Gregory Dorsey pros give up freelancing to form their own band, including Glenn Miller, Bobby Van Epps and Ray McKinley Fred Waring asks 1,500 a week for British tour with his Pennsylvanians JULY: Buddy Rogers, American musician turned film star, forms band for films and stage in Britain Nat Gonella heals rift with Lew Stone and returns to Monseigneur, displacing Clinton French Kit Cat doses and Joe Loss transfers to Charing Cross Road Astoria. Rudy Vallee doubles Long Island Pavilion Royal and Manhattan Beach with 18-piece band at 2,300 a week Jack Payne refuses to deputise on air for Henry Hall because he could get 500 a week more playing a theatre.
AUGUST: Mecca offers US alto-leader Benny Carter 6-week British tour with his all-star band, which includes Jack Teagarden and Gene Krupa. Ray Noble goes to the States in September for at least five years to front big American band, with drummer Bill Harty as manager and Al Bowlly as vocalist. Ministry of Labour refuses work permits for proposed second visit by Duke EIlington Orchestra in September , Geraldo starts long-running non-stop radio programme Dancing Through, playing 145 tunes in an hour All-black revue Blackbirds, featuring female trumpeter-singer Valaida, opens at London Coliseum Jazz violinist Joe Venuti accompanied by guitarist Viggiani (Frank Victor) plays two weeks at London Palladium.
SEPTEMBER: Monseigneur Restaurant scheduled as news cinema, ousting Lew Stone and Mantovani, who will go on tour Death of rhythm pianist and songwriter Raie de Costa Ray Noble leaves for America to start bandleading job at New York's Rockfeller Centre US bandleader-vocalist Russ Colombo is killed while demonstrating old duelling pistol to photographer friend French leader Ray Ventura resists rising salaries and disbands . First commercial amplifier, 7-watt 5-valve all-mains portable called Truevoice Operadio, price 22 10s, is brought over from America by Selmer.
OCTOBER: Jack Hylton returns from American vacation with two popular vocal acts, Four Ink Spots and Three Gaylords - Teddy Joyce goes on HMV and Lew Stone on Regal Zonophone. Ambrose moves from Warner Brunswick to Decca - - Prevented by AFM from bandleading in States, Ray Noble will write and orchestrate music for film in Hollywood Alan Kane, 21-year-old drummer-vocalist, gate- crashes Brixton Astoria and gets job with Lew Stone. Trombonist Lew Davis leaves Lew Stone and joins Ambrose, releasing Ted Heath for sessions Jack Payne signs anonymous "masked singer" and high-note trumpeter Tommy McQuater.
NOVEMBER: long-serving tenor - sexist - comedian Johnny Raitz, overshadowed by new multi-instrumental clown Freddy Schweitzer, leaves lack Hylton with vocalist Pat O'Malley, who plans solo career Ray Noble appointed MD for Paramount In Hollywood. Nat Gonella, no longer with Lew Stone, records with small swing band on Parlophone Provincial leaders who lose promising discoveries to big-time bands suggest transfer fees as compensation Geraldo debuts with 40-minute non-stop stage show.
DECEMBER: Carlton Hotel reinstates dancing with 10-piece band led by altoist Joe Van Straten Songwriter Harry Tilsley, whose hits include "Lets All Go The Music Hall," dies aged 37 MM readers identify mystery Regal Zonophone jazz group, the Six Swingers. Fletcher Henderson once again falls out with his musicians and forms a new band Radio Luxembourg opens a commercial radio studio in London, presided over by Carroll Gibbons, Van Phillips and Christopher Stone. Brunswick produce an 8-record, 20,000-word book, Eight Years of Jazz.

1935

JANUARY; Bandleaders Lew Stone and Mantovani open at new West End restaurant, the Hollywood East London gig leader Howard Baker discovers 17-year-old singer Vera Lynn, who becomes international star British variety tour by Dutch trumpet ace Louis de Vries EMI starts recording war by reducing HMV, Columbia and Parlophone from 2s 6d to is 6d, causing speedy reaction by other labels Ambrose is offered six weeks in Rome broadcasting for Italian Government AHM(?) accepts membership of Ray Noble who can now form American band to broadcast for NBC and record for Victor BBC outlaws word hat and tells bandleaders to call it "bright " or "swing" music.
FEBRUARY: Louis Armstrong returns to America, leaving trail of broken bookings stretching from France to Egypt. Nat Gonella, back with Lew Stone, is featured with integral small band, the Georgians BBC bans "scat" singing in response to protests from listeners Coleman Hawkins forms band in Paris Jack Hylton, who has not recorded for a year, since he left Decca, ends his prolonged feud with EMI and goes back on HMV Duke Ellington starts world tour with two weeks at London Palladium in April US leader Glen Gray takes legal action against infringement of title Casa Loma Orchestra Bob Crosby puts clause in his NBC contract forbidding anyone billing him as a brother of Bing.
MARCH: Dutch trumpeter Louis de Veries forms British band, including Bruts Gonella, for music-hall tour Harry Bentley, who sang for many radio and recording bands, including Bert Firman and Jack Harris, dies aged 34 . Bandleader Jack Hart goes on tour with Hughie Green Gang, which brought fame to the now compere of Opportunity Knocks. Louis Armstrong develops serious lip trouble and mutt not play for six months Ministry of Labour refuses work permits for Duke Ellington and Fred Waning Bandleader Jack Jackson sacks guitarist-vocalist Chappie D'Amato because he socialises with patrons at Dorchester Hotel.
APRIL; Paul Whiteman celebrates 20 years as a bandleader Bonny Goodman signs exclusive 12-month contract with RCA Victor Ambrose demands 1,000 a week in variety and says lie will still be out of pocket Singer-bandleader Rudy Vallee. click as actor in new film Sweet Music Melody Maker's Leonard Feather accurately predicts big future for Baltimore mouth-organist 21-year-old Larry Adler Death of veteran leader Bunny Moten.
MAY: Dutch singer Leo Fuld gets three-year contract with Jack Hylton, replacing Brian Lee, who leaves for solo career Ministry of Labour will no: permit any more American bands to play Britain until there is a satisfactory reciprocal arrangement Start of two big dance band films, Henry Hall in Music Hath Charms and Jack Hylton in She Shall Have Music Variety tours lure Lou Preager from Romano's and Lew Stone and Mantovani from Hollywood Restaurant Earl Nines' right-hand-man, saxist-arranger Cecil Irwin, killed in car crash.
JUNE: Pianist-arranger Claude Bampton appointed MD of Radio Turin Rumanian bandleader James Kok exiled for paying tribute to Jack Hylton Tenor-saxist Coleman Hawkins settles in Copenhagen. Teddy Joyce discovers 21-year-old altoist Andy McDevitt and 20-year-old trombonist George Chisholm, who become top sidemen and sessioneers. Harry Roy will receive E40,000 for film musical with his band and fiancee, Princess Pearl of Sarawak Singer Bob Crosby takes over leaderless Ben Pollack band. leaving Dorsey Broth- ers, whose success at Glen Island Casino is jotted by sudden and inexplicable departure of trombonist Tommy Dorsey.
JULY: Melody Maker Ambrose concert for musicians at Covent Garden attracts 1,600 people and demonstrates perfection of his band Mills Bros cancel tour of Britain because bass singer John has congestion of lungs Recovering from serious lip trouble and long lay-off, Louis Armstrong resumes one-night-stands with 15-piece band Losing lead trumpet Art Whetsol and drummer Sonny Greer through ill health, Duke Ellington brings in Charles Allen and Freddy Avendorf US crooner Ruth Etting retires.
AUGUST; W. H. Holecroft, 34-year-old saxist with band on cruise liner Laurentic, is killed in fog collision in Irish Sea Bandleader Harry Roy weds Elizabeth Brooks, Princess Pearl of Sarawak, at Caxton Hall South African singer, 27-year-old Ivor Davis, joins Henry Halt, who takes six week Vacation to study music scene In States Jack Hylton breaks US embargo on British bandleaders with 13 one-hour broadcasts for Standard Oil Co, but must use American musicians Decorative blonde singer Evelyn Ball crosses Atlantic to join Ambrose, replacing Else Carlisle who goes on tour with Sam Browne Tommy Dorsey regrets impulsive departure and rejoins Dorsey Bros Band.
SEPTEMBER: Les Allen disbands his backing group, the Melody Four, and teams up with close-harmony trio the Canadian Bachelors Oscar Robin celebrates 13th anniversary of his co-operative Romany Band Dutch trumps. star 29-year-old Louis de Vries is killed In a car crash in Holland. Ambrose and his Orchestra will film Soft Lights And Sweet Music at Beaconsfield Crystalate introduce 9-inch six-penny records. Crown, with Mrs Jack Hylton, Billy Merrin Dorsey Brothers fall out again and split irrevocably to lead their own bands Cec Morrison, Henry Hall of Australia, is killed in motor accident.
OCTOBER: Singer Peggy Dell leaves Roy Fox for commercial radio in States and is replaced by 14-year-old Mary Lee, best of 400 entrants at crooning contest in Glasgow Joe Loss signs for HMV Geraldo for Decca and Maurice Winnick for Parlophone Energetic bandleader Teddy Joyce plans own club called Continental in London's West End and will play dame in Dick Whittington at Glasgow's Theatre Royal Drummer-vocalist George Elrick, product of Melody Maker dance band contest at Aberdeen in 1927, joins Henry Hall in place of Len Berman. whose touring pianists are Arnold Mayne and future MD Norrie Paramour. Trumpeter Bunny Berigan and trombonist Jack Lacey leave Bunny Goodman Tommy Dorsey starts work with his new band, inherited from Joe Haymes.
NOVEMBER: Henry Hall lead-trumpeter Frank Wilson forsakes musical career for religion Louis Armstrong takes over Luis Russell's band as backing group Harry Sarton replaces Alex Kraut as recording manager of Decca, who sign French Hot Club Quintet East London gig leader Howard Baker discovers future international singing star Dorothy Squires Death of veteran bassist Tiny Stock Paul Whiteman augments band to 50 for big circus show Jumbo at New York Hippodrome.
DECEMBER: Harry Roy agrees long renewal of contract at Mayfair Hotel Teddy Joyce forms all-star 13-piece band led by guitarist brother Taylor for his projected night club, the Continental British police investigate gangster threats against US bandleader-actor Buddy Rogers Maurice Winnick introduces new vocalist Paula Green on broadcasts and loses singer-comedian Sam Costa, who leaves to freelance and eventually becomes popular DJ. BBC seeks to ban special arrangements, declaring printed parts are adequate and preferable Hughie Green forms musical juveniles to play exact orchestrations of American bands Big revival in old-time dance music.

1936

JANUARY: Ginger group with six dance band musicians invades MU London Branch committee Ambrose trombonist Ted Heath joins Syd Lipton AFM expels pianist Fats Walter for non-payment of dues Oscar Rabin creates dance band history with first-ever musical transfer fee, paying E105 to rival leader Alan Green for lead-trumpet Bobby Hutchinson Ministry of Labour refuses Ray Noble wont permit for London Palladium appearance with his New York Rainbow Room Orchestra Death of King George V stops radio and closes dance-band venues Canton Hotel terminates dancing and sacks Mau- rice Winnick Orchestra Speedy end to Teddy Joyce's night-club venture, the Continental Brunswick records go up one shilling to 2s 6d.
FEBRUARY: John Mills, bass singer with Mills Bros, dies of pneumonia and his father, John Senior, takes over US saxist-arranger Benny Carter appointed to staff orchestra for Henry Hall at BBC. Ambrose sends his 16-piece band on tour fronted by singer Evelyn Ball. National steel guitars are introduced in Britain at 18 2s. Harlem's Cotton Club closes down Blues singer Billie Holiday records with Teddy Wilson.
MARCH: Closure of Blue Train ends five-year run by bandleader Bill Gerhardi Rising young vocalist Ella Fitzgerald broadcasts and records with drummer-leader Chick Webb. Harry Roy enters riding an elephant in All Alight At Oxford Circus at London Palladium Billy Merrin discovers 15-year-old Rita Williams, who becomes top solo, group and dance band vocalist Henry Hall enlarges his BBC Dance Orchestra to 21 and will be guest leader on maiden voyage of Cunard liner Queen Mary in May Crystalate revive Vocation with recordings by Teddy Wilson, Luis Russell, Henry Allen.
APRIL: Jack Hylton extends stay in States causing break-up of his band at home Romantic vocalist Monte Rey leaves Geraldo to broadcast and tour with Joe Loss. West Indian trumpeter Leslie (Jiver) Hutchinson forms band to back dancer Ken (Snakehips) Johnson who becomes big-time bandleader BBC appoints theatre MD Hyam Greenbaum its first resident bandleader for TV service which starts in July Lew Stone angers his fans by switching to sweet music because swing isn't enough to keep a band commercially successful , Billy Cotton buys MAY Malcolm Campbell's record-breaking racing car Bluebird.
MAY: Lou Preager discards sweet style and forms 13-piece swing band for country-wide tour Red Nichols and Five Pennies make film bearing their name and featuring some of their hits Sextet at London's Spanish Club is led by swing accordionist Eric Win. Stone, who becomes famous composer - arranger - bandleader Harry Leader's singing discovery Chick Henderson joins Joe Loss Bandleader Fret Elizalde, who retired to Spain, writes and conducts piano concerto in Barcelona.
JUNE; Ambrose turns down 600 a week personal salary in America to return to Mayfair Hotel, replacing Harry Roy, in September. Phil Cork, 33-year-old Mecca drummer-leader, is killed in motorcycle accident British introduction of electric guitar on records by Len Fillis and on stage by US banjoist Ken Harvey Jean Conibear. 29-year-old member of the three Rhythm Sisters, is killed in car crash while on tour with Sam Browne Syd Lipton Band flies to Holland and back daily for five ballroom dancing sessions, returning for evening appearances at Grosvenor House.
JULY: Ambrose disbands and leaves for America in a cloud of mystery Veteran bandleader and musical theorist Al Davison dies of heart attack while on seaside tour with his Claribel Band Ex-Jack Payne altoist Sid Millward starts his varied bandleading career with quintet at Wraysbury's Santa Monica Club. Jack Hylton returns from eight months in USA to re-form his band, fight big contract-breaking lawsuit with Gaumont British and consider his future on both sides of Atlantic Salzberg Festival features swing A music concert for first time. BBC rejects appeals for dance music on Sundays.
AUGUST: Orville Knapp, 28-year-old US bandleader who claimed to have introduced the electric guitar, is killed piloting his own plane at Boston Blues singer Billie Holiday makes first solo records for Brunswick Noted orchestrator and MD Harry Perritt dies of heart attack at 40. Singer Los Allen dispenses with his Canadian Bachelors and teams up with Kitty Masters West Ham speedway rider Eric Chitty becomes spare-time crooner.
SEPTEMBER: Piano accordionhits peak of popularity. Jack Payne goes into partnership with Odeon to present more dance bands - including his own - at all their theatres. MU uproar over service bands doing civilian jobs, sparked by appearance of Scots Guards at Prince's Restaurant Hammersmith Palais signs Oscar Robin Band until 1940. Retired bandleader Fred Elizaide volunteers to fight in Span- ish Civil War Resurrected Original Dixieland Jazz Band makes first records for RCA Victor Dutch pianist Melle Weersma is arranging for Jack Hylton, notable example of his work being revival of evergreen "Tiger Rag " Secondhand records of early hot jazz selling for as much as 7 in USA. Billy (voice of Popeye) Costello comes over for variety tour.
OCTOBER; Henry Ha!) and BBC Dance Orchestra become first dance band to tele- vise in experimental transmission from Alexandra Palace. Trumpeter Roy Eldridge and tenorist Choo Berry leave Fletcher Henderson Singer Sam Browne rejoins Ambrose after variety tours with Elsie Carlisle, Rhythm Sisters and Radio Three , Bandleader Dick Denny travels over 2,000 miles occupying two days for one gig in India Clarinet- tist-leader Benny Goodman makes film debut in Big Broadcast of 1937 Ambrose reputed to have earned E50,000 in eight months.
NOVEMBER: Trombonist Jack Teagarden and violinist Joe Venuti swop blows at Texas Centennial Exposition Melody Maker introduces hit song chart based on radio popularity Accordion Day in London attracts 653 contestants and audience of 10,000 Jimmy Lunceford Orchestra scheduled for Europe In January but refused work permit for Britain Roy Fox Introduces new singer Barry Gay brother of his now-famous vocalist Denny Dennis George Scott-Wood and Six Swingers make variety debut. Bandleaders Ambrose and Jack Harris buy Ciro's Club and will alternate there, starting in January with Ambrose, who leaves Mayfair Hotel Harry Roy refuses to do any more broadcasts until existing fee of E40 is raised.
DECEMBER: Dance Band Leaders Association is formed and kicks off with approach to BBC for better broadcasting fees and conditions Singer At Bowlly leaves Ray Noble in New York and comes home to farm own band, helped by pian-ist-arranger brother Misch Following retirement of Isham Jones, tenor-saxist Woody Herman forms own band and becomes Illustrious swing maestro. Dance band bookings and airings affected ` by abdication of King Edward VIII Ella Fitzgerald makes mysterious departure from Chick Webb Band Fred Elizalde wounded in Spanish Civil War.

1937

JANUARY: Jack Hylton returns from USA and rebuilds his band Reg Foresythe goes to States to compose and arrange jazz and classics and guest with Paul Whiteman Harry Roy will appear as a gangster in his second film, Rhythm Racketeer. Leslie Douglas, singer with Van Phillips Ork, starts his bandleading career at hurray's Club Guitarist in TV's first danceband, Eric Wild and his Tea-Timers, is Eric Robinson, who becomes leader of wartime RAOC's Blue Rockets and famous television MD Concerned that records will cause unemployment, AFM boss James Petrillo threatens recording ban starting February 1.
FEBRUARY: Straight from night club obscurity 21-year-old Ray Ellington replaces Joe Daniels with Harry Roy and becomes top drummer and bandleader Lou Preager features trumpeter Teddy Foster and his Kings of Swing in his touring band show Bandleader Teddy Joyce goes bankrupt and forms a female stage band which includes lead-alto Ivy Benson, awaiting the chance to form her own eternal All-Girls' Band BBC restricts dance band vocals to three a broadcast Chicago musicians face protection threats from gangsters.
MARCH: Henry Hall leaves BBC after five and a half years on September 25 and will not be replaced by a resident bandleader Decca buys Crystalate, including Rex, Vocation and Panachord, for 200,000 Glenn Miller, trombonist-arranger with Red Nichols, Ray Noble and Dorsey Bros, forms own band and starts legendary civilian and army career Jack Hylton returns from sell-out tour of Continent with weekly takings of 8,000 in Berlin US bandleader Jimmy Lunceford runs into business difficulties and abruptly ends tour of Europe Film star singer Stella Moya joins Nat Gonella's Georgians Electric organ pioneered on stage by Robin Richmond.
APRIL: Harry Berley, 31-year-old viola player with Lew Stone, Roy Fox and Jack Hylton commits suicide Blues singer Billie Holiday leaves Harlem's Uptown House to join Count Baste Open-air dance music a big success in London Parks World's first fat band, the Jolly Robustos, seven heavyweight musicians who average 15 stone, open at Streatham Locarno. Rudy Vallee, saxist-vocalist with the Savoy Orpheans at the Savoy Hotel in 1925, returns to London as a wealthly crooning bandleader to play the Holborn Empire Derek Neville, 26-year- old alto and baritone saxist, joins trumpeter-leader Valaida at Holland's jazz haunt the Tabaris Bing Crosby records are buried in secret vault in the Appalachian Mountains to be opened in AD 8114!
MAY: Ambrose resumes broadcasting after six-month dispute with BBC Syd Kyte opens with nine-piece band and vocalist Dinah Miller at Carlton Hotel Peter Knight wins Melody Maker All-London contest award with Al Morter's Rhythm Kings and becomes brilliant pianist-composer-arranger-MD Jack Harris will deputise at Giro's Club while co-director Ambrose gets 1,000 for three weeks at Paris Exhibition Jack Payne retires and disbands Three-hour musical battle between Chick Webb and Benny Goodman attracts 9,000 rovers to Harlem's Savoy Ballroom.
JUNE: Bing Crosby turns down 4,000 offer for 14 days at Hammersmith Palais. Singer-comedian George Elrlck plans Milt Britton-type comedy band act under aegis of Jack Hylton Selmer spend 14,000 on a new musical instrument shop in London's Charing Cross Road Eric Maschwitz, responsible for many reforms benefitting dance bands, resigns as BBC Head of Variety and is succeeded by John Watt British singer Pat O'Malley starts lucrative film career as character actor in Hollywood. Talent-finding bandleader Jan Ralfini celebrates 25 years in musical profession Gordon Reed, centre- forward with Gateshead football club, joins Alan Green's Band as guitarist-vocalist Roy Fox auditions 7,000 applicants in countrywide search for glamour girl singer.
JULY: Brain tumour kills 31-year-oId songwriting genius George Gershwin Henry Hall will get 800-1,000 a week for world tour with 20-piece band when he leaves BBC After 11 wasted days at Paris Exhibition because Monte Carlo Restaurant is not ready, Ambrose brings his band back to Giro's Cyril Stapleton, lead violinist with Jack Payne, starts his bandleading career fronting an octet at the San Marco Restaurant Pianist in 18-piece blind band coached and fronted by Claude Bampton for St. Dunstan's, is George Shearing, who became a jazz celebrity on both sides of Atlantic.
AUGUST: George Elrick makes variety debut accom- panied by seven star musicians loaned by Lew Stone BBC lifts three-song vocal chorus restriction on dance bands. Sid Phillips refuses staff arranging job with Rudy Vallee, but leaves Ambrose for Jack Hylton. Bill Olding, 23-year-old singer with Lou Preager, who is 7ft 6in and 24 stone, takes his own bed on tour. Jack White and his Collegians do their first broadcast. Les Allen and Kitty Masters dissolve their double act and go solo. Terrorist Choo Berry moves from Fletcher Henderson to Cab Galloway AFM wants to ban broadcasting of gramophone records to protect liveli- hood of musicians Cheaper television receivers, starting at 45gns, at Radiolympia All popular records go up by an average of 6d next month.
SEPTEMBER: Ambrose offered 10,000 to make a film musical called Kicking The Gong Around Radio Toulouse opens in France and will provide plenty of commercial radio for musicians. Fascist newspaper attack on gentleman bandleader Sydney Lipton Teddy Joyce goes back to leading a male band after short spell with female musicians Clarinet ace Irving Prestopnik is captured by Glenn Miller Revered jazz trumpeter Billy Butterfield joins Bob Crosby Band.
OCTOBER: Memphis car crashkills incomparable blues singer 50 year-old Bessie Smith Retired bandleader Fred Elizalde, wounded in Spanish Civil War, is invalided out of General Franco's army Singer Ronnie Genarder goes solo, leaving Jack Payne, who has practically given up bandIeading to become an impresario Joe Schuman, 14-year-old blind accordionist is discovered by Roy Fox in Glasgow and becomes Anglo-American jazz pianist Joe Saye US sax star Frankie Trumbauer gives up playing at 37 to produce music instruction books and records.
NOVEMBER: Benny Goodman makes peace with song pluggers after long harassment Tommy Dorsey nets 6,000 dollars a week for his band at New York's Paramount Theatre. Melody Maker radio critic Detector, listening to American broadcast, enthuses over 17-year-old vocalist Maxine Sullivan, who becomes world-famous jazz singer Jack Hylton makes exploratory trip to States Ieav-ing his band fronted by songwriter Eddie Pola. - Swing pioneer Milt Mezzrow takes 15-piece black-and-white band into Harlem's Uproar House but threats end the job in a week Italian violinist Emilio Colombo collapses and dies aged 60 while leading his band at Mayfair Hotel.
DECEMBER: Veteran saxist Howard Jacobs gives tip bandleading for solo career in ice show In Switzerland Ambrose vocalist Sam Browne teams up with singer Pat Taylor and pianists Rawicz and Landauer . Roy Fox starts new trend by inviting audiences to dance to his band on stage. Pianist-leader Eddie Carroll opens at restaurant and lido attached to Europe's biggest block of flats in London's Dolphin Square Semi-pro bandleaders vote to join Dance Band Directors' Association. Fire destroys popular dance band venue, Chatham Thea- tre Royal Boxing champion Tommy Farr writes hit song "Maybe I'll Find Someone Else", and records it on Regal Zonophone.

1938

JANUARY: Teddy Joyce opens as bandleader and master of ceremonies at Elephant and Castle Trocadero Alan Kane, who sang for Lew Stone and Arthur Rosebery, joins Ambrose, who declines reduced price recording contract with Decca Al Bowlly makes comeback after throat surgery in America. Fletcher Henderson trumpet ace Joe Smith dies, forgotten, in an asylum Jack Hylton starts big Continental tour with 20-piece band and seven singers. Singer Dan Donovan becomes a bandleader at Lansdowne House Restaurant.
FEBRUARY Ambrose demands exclusive service from his musicians and shows his determination by sacking busy session trombonist Eric Breeze Sam Browne and Elsie Carlisle revive their vocal act accompanied by pianists Len Edwards and Don Phillips. Bonny Goodman Orchestra is a riot at Carnegie Hall Claude Bampton's blind band threatened with extinction by hostility of bookers and prohibitive touring expenses Bass saxist Adrian Rollini makes bandleading bow at New York's Rainbow Room Ray Noble returns home in June for variety tour fronting all-star band recruited in Canada Hot Club of France staggers audience at Melody Maker swing concert. French bandleader Ray Ventura and his Collegians make a flying visit to Britain.
MARCH: Death of 59-year-old bandleader-composer Sydney Baynes Louis Levy trumpeter Tommy Anderson acquitted of manslaughter after death of flautist colleague Val Stewart Jazz pianist Art Tatum booked for music-hall tour of Britain Joe Loss gives guest broadcast to 108-year-old singer Charles Alfred Arnold QPR centre forward Gordon Reed quits soccer to become singing bandleader at Hammersmith Palais Ambrose. Jack Hylton, Henry Hall and; Roy Fox are booked for Glasgow Empire Exhibition in May. Teenage drummer in juvenile band fronted by singer Johnny Green includes eventual ace percussionist and bandleader Eric Delaney Drummer-vibist Lionel Hampton breaks colour bar by joining Bonny Goodman.
APRIL: Death of veteran trumpet-leader Joe "King" Oliver, mentor of Louis Armstrong Drum-star Gene Krupa forms own band British saxist Teddy White, bandleader at Vienna's Eden Bar, is caught in Nazi invasion of Austria and flees almost penniless to safety in Prague. Alfredo and Gipsy Band wear suits made of glass at Ideal Home Exhibition Claude Bampton's blind band ends in financial disaster and he reforms his Bandits Harry James, high-note trumpeter with Bonny Goodman, records with own band on Vocation.
MAY: Saxist-leader Howard Jacobs, with no work comparable to his ability, dejectedly returns to America. Heavyweight boxing champion Larry Gains turns bandleader and starts variety tour. Selmer introduce revolutionary electric keyboard, Pianotron. Rotterdam's famous Mephisto hot spot is destroyed by fire. "Lambeth Walk," featured in new musical Me and My Girl, becomes dance craze. Spencer Williams' hit song "Barbery Coast " is banned in USA because one line refers to marijuana. Alto-saxist Ivy Benson leaves Teddy Joyce to lead own band in road show Radio Rodeo.
JUNE; US jazz guitar pioneer Dick McDonough collapses at NBC Studios in New York and dies aged 34. Holiday camp king Billy Butlin books Lew Stone and Mantovani to open his new Clacton camp at a cost of 800 a week. Pianist-entertainer Fats Waller scheduled for 500 a week variety tour of Britain. American racial trouble over black singers with white bands causes Jimmy Dorsey to dispense with June Richmond, but Artie Shaw defiantly retains Billie Holiday. Ambrose is offered personal salary of 2,500 for 13 weeks to form and front all-star band in States. Benny Goodman refuses to appear when berserk jitterbuggers invade 25-band open air festival of swing in New York.
JULY: Death of dance band veteran Teddy Sinclair, who once led Savoy Orpheans. Jack Hylton goes back on road with reminiscences show of musical hits called Cavalcade. Singers Len Bermon and Dawn Davis team for variety. Poison pen campaign rocks US bandleaders and music publishers. Roy Fox sacks his band, seeking a "spring-clean". but musicians claim his motive is salary cuts to combat declining business. Publica- tion of Dorothy Baker's dramatic novel Young Man With A Horn inspired by tragic life of Bix Beiderbecke. Harry Roy and Band homeward bound after exhausting three-month "hard labour" schedule in Argentine.
AUGUST: Roy Fox forms new band, but suffers ill health and cancels all bookings for treatment in Switzerland. GTC refuse Harry Roy and his Band permission to broadcast while playing their theatres. Fats Waller gets riotous reception at Glasgow Empire variety debut and makes swing organ records with British band for HMV. Louis Armstrong, due to appear in Bing Crosby picture Doctor Rhythm, is mysteriously left out.
SEPTEMBER: Duke Ellington J records "The Lambeth Walk" Ella Fitzgerald refuses 5,000 dollar film offer from Warner Bros to stay with Chick Webb. Her place is taken by Maxine Sullivan who debuts in musical St Louis Blues. MU threatens Geraldo with strike unless he pays 10gn minimum at Savoy Hotel. Billy Bissett starts 10-month season with 14-piece band at Cafe de Paris on October 10. Hammersmith Palais is first dance hall to be featured on TV. Selmer produce 40-watt amp and call it "a giant"!
OCTOBER: BBC agrees to first-ever dance-band broadcast on a Sunday and history is made by a quartet led by pianist Charlie Kunz. Ambrose abruptly terminates variety tour and disbands, defeated by crippling overheads and soaring salaries, but returns to Decca after financial deadlock with no records since Christmas 1937. Young Man With A Horn will be filmed with actor Burgess Meredith playing the musician hero aided by a "ghost" trumpeter. . GTC removes broadcasting ban on Harry Roy, who makes up a long row with BBC and goes back on air. Lew Stone will conduct Jack Hulbert-Cecily Courtnidge musical Under Your Hat.
NOVEMBER: Henry Hall and his Band booked for 4-week season next February at Berlin Scala. Ambrose Octet goes on tour featuring Evelyn Dall, Max Bacon, Denny Dennis, Vera Lynn and Les Carew. Hackney singer 16-year-old Terry Devon joins Billy Thorburn and eventually stars with and marries swing accordionist-leader Tito Burns, who retires in due course to set up as a variety agent. Bandleader Al Collins leaves Berkeley Hotel after 17 years for films, stage and commercial radio. Trombonist-vocalist Jack Teagarden leaves Paul Whiteman after five years to form his own band. Veteran jazz tenorist Babe Rusin joins Tommy Dorsey.
DECEMBER: Fats Waller is involved in fracas after night-club show in Harlem and his brother Edgar is shot and gravely wounded. Artie Shaw loses blues singer Billie Holiday. BBC says it can't afford Ambrose Orchestra although it is the most popular band on air. Ritz Hotel Ballroom closes, ending five-year run by violinist-leader Joe Kaye. After 21 national airings, BBC tells Harry Leader: " Your band is not fit for broadcasting". Saxist Bud Freeman leaves Benny Goodman. Nat Gonella disbands his Georgians while he visits America. Bandleader Syd Lipton sues tenor saxist George Evans and singer Chips Chippindall for breach of contract at Grosvenor House on Christmas Day.

1939

JANUARY; Bandleader Jack Harris floors obstreperous reveller in Chelsea Arts Ball fracas at Albert Hall London Casino goes into liquiddation and closes, leaving bandleaders Hugo Rignold and Bert Firman out of work .Hot record craze sweeps US First song ever to receive Royal Approval and bear the King's photo on title page is "The Chestnut Tree" Bandleader Sydney Lipton's 15-year-old vocalist daughter Celia makes her radio debut with his band at Grosvenor House . Blind jazz pianist George Shearing does his first solo broadcast Ray Noble walks out Turing opening night pandemonium at Earl Carroll's theatre-restaurant enterprise in New York.
FEBRUARY: US clarinet-leader Benny Goodman threatens to disband and retire in 1940 . All-star co-operative Heralds of Swing open at Paradise Club Galaxy of bands and singers booked for first-ever Jazz Jamboree, which becomes annual star-studded event in aid of MU Benevolent Fund Blues singer Mildred Bailey seeks 10,000 libel damages from American music mag Downbeat Now in Australia, Roy Fox starts resident job at St Kilda Palais, Sydney, on March 1. Syndicate buys bankrupt London Casino for 250,000 and will re-open with two bands and international cabaret . MM draws attention to obscure banjoist-comic Charlie Chester, who sweeps to the top as a quickfire comedian.
MARCH: Ciro's Club closes, ending reign of Jack Harris, who is booked with Hugo Rignold for re-opened London Casino Ella Fitzgerald's record with Chick Webb, "A Tisket A Tasket," reaches 250,000 copies, bestseller in USA for past eight years. Duke Ellington Ork comes to Europe on April 1 for four weeks at 1,400 a week, but proposed opening show in Britain is vetoed by Ministry of Labour. Sunday Swing club launched by Geraldo at St Martin's Theatre collapses after two weeks through lack of support. Fats Waller and Mills Bros open variety tour at Holborn Empire.
APRIL: Broadcasting bandleaders must now give BBC written undertaking not to accept bribes from music publishers. Coleman Hawkins, who came over to do music shop recitals for Selmers, stays on to guest with Jack Hylton Band Butlins book Mantovani and Billy Thorburn for summer at their holiday camps. Top-earning bandleader in USA is Artie Shaw who, for example, gets 250 for a one-night stand. Strict-tempo bandleader Victor Silvester has sold over 100,000 records in past three months.
MAY IRA sympathisers believed responsible for bomb explosion at Selmer's shop in London's Charing Cross Road. Rhyme-writing semi-pro bandleader Will Dee Barr hurt in knife attack after gig in East London. Lack of Anglo-American band exchange prevents appearance in Britain by Jimmie Lunceford Band due to start European tour on September 1. America bans hit song "Hold Tight" because sea food lines have double me'a'ning wM;8 co"uld cause offence in Harlem. End of all-star co-op Heralds of Swing who have no work after leaving Paradise Club, refusing to accept salary cut.
JUNE: American swing drummer-leader Chick Webb dies. Pianist Gerald Moore sacrifices lucrative recording sessions as a soloist and member of Victor Silvester's Ballroom Orchestra to concentrate on jazz. Lawrence Wright sponsors new joke dance, Boomps-A-Daisy. French musicians oppose eight-week season by fiddle-leader Joe Kaye at Paris Les Ambassadeurs, where he quits after a fortnight. Trombonist Jack Teagarden gets cold shoulder with his new band at the Blackhawk Restaurant in Chicago.
JULY: American trumpet starTommy Ladnier, who notably played for Fletcher Henderson, dies. Jack Jackson and his Band lose some of their instruments in an IRA bomb outrage at Coventry railway station. Teddy Joyce rejoins Hyams Bros and MDs at Elephant and Castle Trocadero witK 6anj which includes pianist Bob Sharpies, who de-velops into familiar television MD. Woody Herman Band leaves Chicago's Trianon Ballroom 10 days before end of four-week season because dancers don't like their kind of music. Mecca introduce a new dance, The Handsome Territorial.
AUGUST: Roy Fox's barnstorming tour of Australia flops through floods, flu and lack of organisation and the band' disintegrates with salaries owing. Jack Hylton instals Cyril Stapleton as bandleader at London Casino, displacing Jack Harris and Hugo Rignald Heralds of Swing have no resident job but continue to broadcast. Amsterdam becomes a swing music haven, with biggest attraction Swedish hot violinist Svend Asmussen at Negro Palace London's public parks book 50 bands for summer open-air dancing. Young altoist Cliff Townshend, now with Joe Daniels and his Hot Shots, becomes big-band sideman and sessioneer and father of the Who's guitarist-composer Pete Townshend. Introduction of new electronic keyboard, the Novachord. Boxing champion Jack Doyle turns singer with Art Gregory and his St Louis Band.
SEPTEMBER: War breaks out and jazz swings Into khaki, with musicians called upon to cheer the nation, despite widespread unemployment as dozens of venues close down. Archer Street, rendezvous of musicians, becomes a sandbagged bastion in the heart of London. Commercial radio programmes go off the air and the BBC television orchestra breaks up . French bandleader Ray Ventura calls off projected British tour because most of his musicians have been conscripted. American trumpet star Bunny Berigan goes bankrupt and says he is fed up with bandleading. Jazz saves the World's Fair in New York with Tommy Dorsey, Bobby Hacket and Louis Prima attractin 85,000 people in two days. Sid Millward starts music hall tour with his crazy comed band the Nitwits.
OCTOBER: Georgians make nightmare dash for home as Nat Gonella stays in Sweden with hiss trumpeter brother Bruts, pianist Harold Hood and singer Stella Moya. Jimmy Lunceford cancels his tour of Europe. Scottish pianist-leader David McRae and his Band are saved but lose all their instruments as liner Athenia is sunk by U-boat. Fats Waller is reprimanded by NBC for making tasteless quips. Ireland's Radio Eireann starts commercial broadcasts and bids for top arranger-MD Van Phillips.
NOVEMBER; Hatchett's Restaurant reintroduces dance music and engages pianist Arthur Young and his Novachordians. Commercial radio re-awakens with experiments in France and a promising start by Radio Eirean. Carroll Gibbons gets back from America and returns to Savoy Hotel. Publicist Felix Mendelssohn Forms six-piece steel-guitar bank led by Roland Peachey which develops into his colourful Hawaiian Serenaders. Harlem's new musicall rage is Jump Rhythm, introduced by the Savoy Sultans. Banjo makes a comeback, useful for accompaniment of wartime songs.
DECEMBER: Name bands cross channel to entertain troops in France, starting with Jack Payne. West End dance venues re-open with Ambrose (Mayfair) Lew Stone and Jack Harris (El Morocco), Jack Jackson (Rectors), Jack Harri (Casino) and Teddy Joyce (Kit Cat). Kenny Baker, 18-year old trumpet-player with comedian Sandy Powell's road show joins Lew Stone's Orchestra in Under Your Hat at Palace Theatre and becomes powerful sideman and sessioneer. After three years as band singer with Decca, Vera Lynn get new contract as one of their five best-selling solo stars.


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