Portsmouth music scene

THE FORTIES


40

WAR broke out in Europe in September 1939 and its first effects upon the music business was to cause dislocation and unemployment, as musicians were caught up in the turmoil abroad and panic at home. The first reaction in Britain was to close down night clubs and all places of entertainment for fear of air raids.
But gradually, as the war tightened its grip, it was realised that more, and not less, entertainment was needed. As the world went through violent upheaval and society became embattled and cynical, so popular music went through several contortions. The romantic ballad, upon which careers and empires of music publishing had been founded, survived and was strengthened by the nostalgic yearnings of parted lovers and soldiers torn from their homes. "As Time Goes By" from the 1940 film Casablanca, starring Humphrey Bogart, typified the mood of many. But jazz itself, so long the provider of joyous escapism, was turning inwards and growing increasingly neurotic. Black Americans were growing everfrustrated by the restrictions and insults of the colour bar and, perhaps combined with wartime pressures, this resulted in their music becoming harsher and more inaccessible. The draft meant that black Americans were called upon to fight for their country, but could not receive all the benefits and freedoms. Musicians fight shy of sociological analysis of their work, but it is fact that the war coincided with the most revolutionary development in jazz since Buddy Bolden - the birth of be-bop.
As the new decade dawned, it seemed that big bands were going from strength to strength. Benny Goodman, crowned by publicists as the "King of Swing," just as Paul Whiteman had been "King of Jazz," was being supplanted by new idols. Glenn Miller's popularity from 1940 onwards was truely astounding, and there were others - Artie Shaw, the brilliant clarinettist who pioneered the use of strings. Tommy Dorsey, the trombonist hailed as the Sentimental Gentleman of Swing. Charlie Barnet, the wealthy Duke Ellington fan who led a powerful bard, and played soprano sax. Cab Galloway, who popularised "scat" singing, a kind of vocal jive talk. Woody Herman another clarinet player who led the "Band That Plays The Blues" and the ex-Goodman sidemen who now led their own swinging outfits: vibraphone player and drummer, Lionel Hampton, drummer Gene Krupa, and trumpeter Harry James. All sold records by the million.
The beat got harder, the riffs fiercer and the trumpets higher. Bands could play complicated arrangements with a facility undreamed of only a few years before. While some of the white bands became sweeter, more sugary and commercial, the black swing bands roared with newfound strength. The Jay McShann band of 1943 was an example. Its attack rivalled Basic and Ellington on riff tunes like "Jump The Blues," and made the Miller.
Shaw and Dorsey bands of the period sound sick. The roots of big city R&B could be heard in the increasingly hard tone, rasps and squeals employed by tenor saxists like Illinois Jacquet and Arnett Cobb, whose almost brutal playing would never have been tolerated in bands led by Goodman or Dorsey.
But the white bands were not without excitement. Gene Krupa led one of the best. He had broken away from Benny Goodman, after a long and successful association, shortly after he played his historic version of "Sing, Sing, Sing" with Goodman` at New York's Carnegie Hall in January 1938.
Gene's driving and exhuberant drumming had been a key factor in the success of Goodman's band and the small groups, the Trio and Quartet with Goodman, Lionel Hampton and pianist Teddy Wilson. After a row on stage with Benny, which was generally suspected to be a disagreement about the volume or prominence of Gene's playing, the drummer quit to launch his own band in April 1938 at the Atlanta Steel Pier. It was an immediate success and began to gain both nationwide popularity and critical acclaim when he began to feature singer Anita O'Day and black trumpeter Roy Eldridge.
Crossing the colour bar had been pioneered in the Thirties by Benny Goodman, but it was still not without its dangers and difficulties. Black musicians were often barred from hotels and even had to enter theatres where they had top billing by side entrances.
But until such pressures forced Roy to quit, Krupa and Eldridge were a great team, the showman drummer and the sultry high trumpet stylist produced some of the most exciting sides of the early Forties in "That Drummer's Band," and "Rockin' Chair." Lionel Hampton, who had first emerged as a drummer with Les Hite's Orchestra in Los Angeles, which sometimes backed Louis Armstrong, switched to the vibraphone when he found the little-used instrument lying in a studio. The combination of Lionel's rhythmic sense and his melodic and improvisational gifts produced sen- sational results.
Lionel quickly became established as a new star and one of the most sought-after performers in jazz. He had recorded extensively with Benny Goodman in the Trio and Quartet since 1935, with either Davey Tough or Gene Krupa on drums.
And Lionel was sometimes featured with the full Goodman Orchestra, as drummer or on vibes. He also made a series of historic small group recordings with the giants of Thirties music. Performances such as "Hot Mallets," " Sweethearts On Parade," "Ring Dem Bells," "Shufflin' At The Hollywood," "Gin For Christmas," and "I Surrender Dear," featured Johnny Hodges, Dizzy Gillespie, Chu Berry, Ben Webster, Cozy Cole, Harry James, Buster Bailey, Ziggy Elman, and many more sidemen from the big bands.
Lionel later made the remarkable Benny Goodman Sextet recordings with pioneer electric guitarist Charlie Christian on performances such as "A Smooth One," "A.C. D.C. Current," "Shivers," and "Seven Come Eleven." But eventually Hamp was tempted to follow the lead taken by Harry James and Gene- Krupa and in September 1940 formed his own permanent orchestra, which immediately 'pursued a much tougher musical policy, bringing fierce trumpet ruffs and honking saxes to Goodman Sextet riff tunes like "Flying Home," and "Airmail Special."
Even with the freedom a bandleader like Hamp gave his soloists, jazzmen were restless, tired of the old routines, sick of limited chord structures, familiar changes and rhythmic patterns. They were bored with the prospect of sitting in sections and riffing forever, with the prospect of one or two hot choruses a night. They too wanted freedom.
TRACING the roots of 1 be-bop, as the new music became known, is a fascinating exercise, and it can be done by listening to certain swing records, where, in the midst of section work and soloing, can be heard the first tentative, experimental notes of the dissidents. In 1939, Lionel Hampton's small group recorded "Shufflin' At The Hollywood," which bounced along with a curious shuffle beat. The pianist, Clyde Hart, takes a solo in which he suddenly dispenses with the regulation stride left hand of the period and plays a single note run on the bass notes, which is surprising in the context and hints at who-knows-what experiments that had been going on unrecorded.
A year later, in 1940, Cab Calloway recorded a straight ahead flag-waving swing opus called "Come On With The Come On," mainly as a vehicle for his scat singing. There are a few bars for a trumpet break taken by one John Birks Gillespie, known to his colleagues as Dizzy, because of his eccentric behaviour. The solo certainly has eccentric qualities, sliding out with a run that is almost contemptuous of the mundane swing proceedings. Cab was later to fire his trumpet soloist and added the comment that he didn't want any "Chinese music" in his band. Meanwhile out in Witchita, the Jay McShann Band was making some recordings for a radio broadcast. The alto sax soloist, who had modelled his style on the great Count Basie band tenorist, tester Young, took a few remarkable solos that left his fellow musicians standing.
Charlie Parker soloed on "Cherokee," and flew like a Bird. It wasn't long before these dissident voices would meet up and experiment and pool their ideas. Away from the strictures and confines of the big bands, musicians met up in a club called Minton's in New York City, and another venue, Monroe's Uptown House. Here, one of the earliest bop pioneers, and a man who was credited by some to have originated the phrase "be-bop" was Charlie Christian, who jammed at after hours sessions.
Charlie picked out single note solos on amplified electric guitar, a practice which had been established by Eddie Durham, but was brought to a fine art by Christian. Charlie can be heard backed by Kenny "Klook" Clarke (who played at Minton's with the Teddy Hill Band) on the historic recordings made by enthusiast Jerry Newman and released on the Esoteric label. Clarke was as much a pioneer as Christian, for at those sessions where altered chords were employed, new rhythmic em- phasis was equally important to give the front line room to expand and explore.
The freeing of the rhythm section from the steady four-to-the-bar beat employed by swing drum- mers from Chick Webb to Gene Krupa and Buddy Rich meant faster looser tempos could be employed. And Parker, Gillespie and pianist Bud Powell frequently played as fast as they could simply to deter non-boppers with their old hat ways from the stand. Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie became the founding fathers of bop, and the music business, being what it is, couldn't help but try and commercialise it to some extent, even if they could not fully understand or enjoy it.
The copywriters scratched their heads and came up with The King. , of Bop. Dizzy was king, and Thelonious Monk, a suitably weird candidate with beard and beret, became "The High Priest Of Bop. Once again, the old cycle repeated itself. Established stars of jazz and swing, from Benny Goodman to Louis Armstrong criticised the new music and claimed it didn't swing and wasn't jazz. In fact, Parker's music in particular was so rooted in the blues as to make most swing men sound effete.
Eventually, even Benny Goodman tried a short-lived experiment when he was signed to Capitol, by recording "bop" tunes and employing a few new wave musicians. The Lionel Hampton Band by 1948 was completely taken over by hoppers like Fats Navarro and Dexter Gordon. Controversies between critics, musicians and public raged as they had never done before. IF BRITISH dance band fans had been stunned by the precision of Benny Goodman's mid-Thirties band, they were bewildered by the first bop records featuring Dizzy Gillespie's pioneering orchestra, which in turn was born out of a bop-infiltrated Billy Eckstine Band. Dizzy's band recorded such bop classics as "Manteca," "Ow" "Oo Bop Sh'Bam" "Good Bait" and the remarkable "Things To Come." Said one British musician later: "When we first heard these records we just couldn't cope."
But bop's momentum was rolling, and more and more musicians rallied to the cause of the pioneers. It became THE way for all young musicians to play, there was a spate of Parker and Gillespie copyists. The novelty of bop as a commercial attraction quickly faded and the music was graced by the general term Modern Jazz. Each instrument had its champions. Miles Davis, Dizzy Gillespie, Fats Navarro were the pol- winning trumpeters. On trombone were such facile players as Kai Winding, J. J. Johnson and Benny Green.
Tenor players Dexter Gordon, Lucky Thompson, Don Byas and Stan Getz, emerged. On piano were Bud Powell and Dodo Marmarosa, while the drummers included Art Blakey, Max Roach, and Kenny Clarke. The big bands modernised with varying degrees of success. Stan Kenton had launched his first band in 1941 and by 1950 he toured with a string section under the banner "Innovations In Modern Music." Woody Herman led much more swinging, jazz-based bands variously known as the Herds, throughout the Forties, featuring exciting arrangments like "Four Brothers" and the finest sidemen including Flip Phillips and Stan Getz.
The Forties began with Duke Ellington's Band at an all-time peak of creative effort. But by the end of the decade, big bands were in decline, Count Basie broke up and worked with a Sextet and Duke had so many personnel changes it marked the lowest point in his bandleading career. The swing era, as ex-emplified by Glenn Miller and his wartime entertainment, with hits like "Little Brown Jug," "Chattanooga Choo Choo," "Tuxedo Junction," "A String Of Pearls" and "In The Mood," had long since faded.
Modern jazz was bringing improvised music under increasing scrutiny by the intellectuals, as it sought escape from the night club to the concert platform. The all-pervading genius of Charlie Parker towered over the young modern jazzmen, although the altoist from Kansas City was not to enjoy the kind of success the West Coast heroes experienced with their brand of modern jazz.
Modern jazz was regarded with emnity by the traditional jazz revivalists, and fans were di- vided between "hipsters" who idolised the boppers and "mouldy fygges," who revered the names of Louis Armstrong, W. C. Handy (The Father Of The Blues), Bunk Johnson, Kid Ory, Henry Red Allen, and Eddie Condon. Traditional jazzmen were sometimes engaged in band battles with be-boppers, often with farcical results. But for all the upheavals in jazz, for the general public, the Forties were the decade, certainly after the war, when the singer reigned supreme. Frank Sinatra, the skinny young vocalist with Tommy Dorsey, when he wasn't engaged in rows with the band's drummer, Buddy Rich, was swiftly established as the first of the "bobbysox" idols, causing remarkable scenes of fan hysteria among teenage girls. Frank was followed by many other singing idols: Dick Haymes, Perry Como, Vic Damone, Frankie Laine, Guy Mitchell, Eddie Fisher, and Harry Belafonte. Among jazz singers there was success too for Billie Holiday, Billy Eckstine, Ella Fitzgerald, Sarah Vaughan and Nat King Cole.
There were ballad singers, and swingers: Dinah Shore, Anita O'Day, Jo Stafford and Kay Starr. But once again that barometer of popular music progress, the grass roots black audiences of America, were searching for identity and excitement and escapism in their own music.

goodman

1940

JANUARY: Benny Goodman wins Downbeat Poll and writes autobiography, The Kingdom of Swing Jack Hylton buys popular radio show ITMA and will present it on stage Melody Maker dance band contests, halted by war after 14 years, resume at Kingston on March 6. Muggsy Spanier breaks up his ragtime band and joins Ted Lewis Multi-instrumentalist George Melachrino starts his auspicious bandleading career at Cafe de Paris.
FEBRUARY: Andrews Sisters are involved in family dispute over alleged romance of Maxine and Patty and their father Peter is charged with illegal possession of revolver US saxist-leader Joe Mar-sala signs British guitarist Albert Harris for his enlarged band at New York's Fiesta Danceteria Ace guitarist Charlie Christian is now with Benny Goodman Artie Shaw will make band-leading comeback in film story of his life East Coast air raids affect summer bookings at Great Yarmouth.
MARCH: Ambrose, resident at Mayfair Hotel, loses seven of his star musicians, who join. RAF and become founder-members of the Squadronaires American saxophone star Rudy Wiedoeft dies aged 46. Harry Roy refuses blank-cheque offer for tour of Holland, preferring not to leave country at moment Ten bands, 15 band leaders, 16 singers, 12 speciality and 1,500 people at Memorial Ball to aid dependents of Melody Maker reporter-cameraman Jack Butterworth Bandleader Artie Shaw elopes with and weds 19-year-old film actress Lana Turner BBC A is featuring Band Of The Week from secret hideout in Bristol.
APRIL: Fire at rhythm club dance in Natchez, Mississippi kills 10 of 12-piece resident band and over 200 young jitterbug dancers Refusing to cut size of his band, Maurice Win nick leaves Dorchester Hotel on May 31 and Lew Stone comes in leading a 7-piece outfit on Novachord Whirlwind drummer Buddy Rich leaves Tommy Dorsey Ork Decca signs RAF Squadronaires Glenn Miller reaches 6,000 a week with theatre, hotel, radio and recording commitments Don Red man breaks up his band Harmonica star Tommy Reilly is arrested by Gestapo while playing in Leipzig.
MAY: Bandleader Jack Jackson gives up variety tour to join RAF London Casino closes and Jack Harris leaves for America, but his band will do concerts directed by pianist Jack Penn Vocalist Dinah Miller, who fled from Oslo when Germans invaded Norway, is safe and working in neutral Sweden Tommy Dorsey and new band with trumpet soloist Bunny Berigan attract 4,000 to opening at Harlem's Golden Gate Pianist Teddy Wilson breaks up his all-star band because work is scarce and he has lost his best musicians.
JUNE: Top saxist-arranger Arthur Lalley, who led Savoy Orpheans, Blue Lyres and his own Millionaires, is found dead at his home in London BBC launches long-running Radio Rhythm Club, hosted by Charles Chilton. Ambrose discovers 16-year-old singer Anne Shelton and grooms her for international stardom Harry Roy cancels variety tour as call up depletes his band Arthur Whetsel, lead trumpet with Duke Ellington for 10 years, dies Billy Merrin gives up fifth summer season at Ramsgate after two weeks due to air raids Piccadilly - Hotel Restaurant closes, ending 15-year-run by bandleader Jerry Hoey MU admits female musicians for first time, offering membership and male rates to Ivy Benson's All Girls Band. War closes London's long established Gig Club.
JULY: Artie Shaw re-forms hit band, a 14-piece, plus eight strings. and opens at the Coconut Grove in Los Angeles Jazz saxist Frankie Trumbauer quits music to become an aeronautics inspector in Kansas City Jack Harris, who went to America for a holiday and can't get back, forms all-star band for resident job and recordings on Victor Roy Fox settles in New York, leading a band which includes vocalist Kay Kimber Despite air raids several name bands start music-hall tours.
AUGUST: Jack Hylton rescues 70-piece London Philharmonic Orchestra by presenting it on a countrywide variety tour. Jack Jackson bassist Lee Street forms 14-piece all star band in RAOC which became known as the Blue Rockets. Oscar Robin and his Band start series of Spitfire Nights at Hammersmith Palais to provide more fighter aircraft for RAF Benny Goodman disbands due to constant ill health and Paul Whiteman retires to his farm for a rest after 21 years of bandleading Vibist Lionel Hampton forms his own band and includes a trio led by great pianist-vocalist discovery Nat King Cole.
SEPTEMBER: Death of clarinet veteran Johnny Dodds Worn out by air raids, Ambrose goes off for a rest and his band finishes at Mayfair Hotel Air raid onslaught puts bands out of work as theatres, clubs and restaurants close down Bomb seriously injures Arthur Young, pianist-leader at Hatchetts'. Band-leader Jack Payne weds pianist-vocalist Peggy Cochrane Alleged personal indiscretions of pianist Bob Zurke causes break-up of his band Bongo-player Edmundo Ros starts his career as singing Latin American bandleader with resident spot at London's Bermuda Club America introduces Phonovision, a big cabinet with a 24 x 18 inch screen projecting movies with synchronised music for a nickel in the slot. Halle Orchestra plans pop concerts in industrial areas.
OCTOBER: Melody Maker refutes allegations that pianist-leader Charlie Kunz is working for Nazis because his signature tune "Clap Hands, Here Comes Charlie" preceded broadcast in English from German radio station. Saxist Don Redman is expelled by AFM and has to leave Harry James Band. Clarinettist Harry Parry takes trio into Coconut Grove and is appointed leader of BBC's new Radio Rhythm Club Sextet. Benny Goodman makes bandleading comeback with one- nighters using arrangements by Fletcher Henderson. ENSA will provide 40 bands with work entertaining the Forces. NOVEMBER: Charlie Barnet loses 100,000 dollar battle with his bookers, causing expulsion from AFM, break up or his band and possible end of his musical career. Benny Goodman signs star sidemen including saxist Sam Donahue, drummer Dave Tough and trombonist Cootie Williams, who leaves Duke Ellington after 10 years. London's night spots brave the blitz and re-open, starting with Le Suivi, Cafe de Paris and Embassy Club. Tribunal decides Mecca musicians are employed by individual bandleaders who are not compelled to pay 7 gns minimum demanded from circuit by MU. Pianist with Ivor Kirchin at Tottenham Court Road Paramount is Steve Race, who finds fame as musician and broadcaster and writes weekly column for 11 years in Melody Maker.
DECEMBER: Sydney Lipton sacks his entire band at Grosvenor House to re-form with change of style and star sidemen, including Ted Heath (tmb), Bill Shakespeare (tpt), Billy Munn (pno), Jack Simpson (drs), and Jack Cooper (vcl). Enemy action causes liquidation of famous musical instrument firm Selmer, which recovers in due course. Air raid wrecks Chelsea jazz haunt the Six Bells.

1941

JANUARY: American bandleader Hal Kemp killed in car crash. Oscar Rabin and Band escape injury as bomb falls next to theatre where they are playing in Manchester. Jack Payne signs Novachordist-pianist-arranger Arthur Young and starts indefinite series of world broadcasts . Geraldo breaks fresh ground by using an all-black choir with his band on the air. Concerned at depletion of talent in musical profession, bandleaders ask Ministry of Labour to exempt all musicians over 28. Blitz damages Holborn, Finsbury Park and Stratford Empires, London Coliseum and Broadcasting House . British songwriters had a peak year in 1940 with many hits, including "There'll Come Another Time" and "All Over The Place".
FEBRUARY: Bandleader Teddy Joyce dies. American clarinettist Mezz Mezzrow found guilty on dope peddling charge. Recording companies reject MU demand to pay "straight" musicians same rate as dance men. Jack Hylton opens free music hall for Forces at London's Scala Theatre. Artie Shaw Band breaks up. Death of jazz writer and bandleader Stan Patchett, originator of Parlophone's Joe Paradise and his Music.
MARCH: Bomb destroys Cafe de Paris, killing 29-year-old bandleader Ken (Snakehips) Johnson, tenorist Dave Williams and restauranteur Martinus Poulsen and seriously injuring several members of the band Tenor star Don Barrigo leaves Lew Stone and joins Harry Roy BBC bans bandleaders associated with politi- cal movement People's Convention Top bassist Jock Purvis is killed while serving in RAF Serious threat to dance bands as Ministry of Labour, concerned about air raid danger, considers closing ballrooms throughout country . Amateur swing musicians and singers to be auditioned for BBC's Radio Rhythm Club.
APRIL: Popular vocalist Al Bowlly is killed when land mine explodes near his flat in West End of London, Swing harpist Caspar Reardon dies House of Commons vetoes Sunday opening of theatres Accordionist- leader Eric Winstone starts recording for Columbia and Regal Zonophone Jack Teagarden and his Band Fixed for Crosby-Hope picture. Joe Loss singer Chick Henderson, serving as a petty officer in Navy, is rescued from sea when his ship catches fire.
MAY: Army Education Corps will sponsor jazz- recitals for troops. Warner Brothers, to film biography of songwriter George Gershwin, titled Rhapsody In Blue Radio's popular Hi Gang comes off after record one: year run. Mildred Bailey takes over Delta Rhythm Boys and records with them for Decca Top US record is Glenn Miller's "Anvil Chorus " Ambrose concludes radio series and is told there is no room for him in future schedules Ace saxist Charlie Spinnelli dies.
JUNE: HMV launch information bureau for swing fans at their record shop in Oxford Street - Melody Maker discovers seven-year-old drum wizard Victor Feldman and starts him on the road to Anglo-American fame as multi-instrumentalist and bandleader ROAC forms first army rhythm club. Oscar Rabin and his singing associate Harry Davis sign life partnership as band's long-established co-op policy ends Modern symphony written over two and a half years by pianist-arranger Bob Bisby is broadcast by Jack Payne with 45-piece orchestra Melody Maker protests at Daily Express slur: "Many dance band boys dodge the army" Singing star Sam Browne's sister Pearl makes vocal debut on air with Harry Leader.
JULY: Mantovani appointed MD of Jack Hylton's musical Lady Behave at His Majesty's Theatre Benny Goodman changes his entire rhythm section and captures great drummer Sid Catlett from Louis Armstrong Pianist George Shearing gets 18 month contract with Decca after first eight records Nazi plane guns car carrying At Podesta and his Band to a troop concert Walt Disney's cartoon musical Fantasia a big hit in London.
AUGUST: Jack Hylton books ROAC Blue Rockets led by L/Cpl trombonist Eric Tann for stage tour London's Stoll theatre re-opens for variety starting with Billy Cotton and his Band on September 1. Bands of Joe Loss, Geraldo, Squadronaires, Skyrockets and Ken (Snakehips) Johnson for Jazz Jam- boree on September 7 American harmonica star Larry Adler offers his services to British Government Ragtime pioneer 51-year-old pianist-composer Jelly Roll Morton dies in Los Angeles Singer Monte Rey leaves Joe Loss for solo career.
SEPTEMBER: Whole of Charlie Barnet's Band held by US narcotics squad after guitarist Anthony "Bus" Etri and trumpet vocalist Lloyd Handling are found with reefers when killed in car crash Ambrose presents new variety act featuring Sam Browne, Evelyn Doll and Max Bacon. Pianist Stanley Black leaves Harry Roy to freelance Chicago clarinettist Joe Marsala quits band business for music publishing Louis Armstrong Will make History of Jazz film for ultra-modern director Orson Welles Government's proposed 4 pm blackout curfew will hit entertainment.
OCTOBER: London's Phoenix Theatre reopens as variety house with Maurice Winnick and his Orchestra. Ministry of Information to make film of army jazz Dutch musicians keep flag flying during Nazi occupation Trumpet-leader Johnny Claes quits Nuthouse when singer Benny Lee is threatened with sack to make room for extra sax. MU gets rise for BBC Band Of The Week musicians.
NOVEMBER: 8,000 applications for 800-capacity Melody Maker all-star jam session at EMI Studio which is recorded for a series on HMV. Bandleaders send urgent manifesto on call-up policy to Minister of Labour American record boom with sales for 1941 expected to reach 100 million London's newest night club, the Bagatelle, opens on December 10, with Ambrose providing a 7-piece band fronted by saxist Frank Weir Decca produce an Encyclopedia of Swing, price 2s. Geraldo conducts 70-piece orchestra in classical and modern concert at Albert Hall.
DECEMBER: Cab Galloway's ace tenor-saxist Leon "Chu" Berry, aged 29, is killed in a motor accident in the States Ambrose presents rumba specialist Don Marino Barreto on stage Vera Lynn goes on tour with pianist Len Edwards Top US songwriter Gus Kahn dies, aged 54 Sax star Danny Polo "ghosts" clarinet playing of Bing Crosby in hit film Birth Of The Blues MU and BBC settle new rates for recorded threatened "air war".

1942

JANUARY: Sensational MU elections, with two-thirds of existing committee ousted. BBC broadcasts big swing concert staged by Cavendish Music at London Coliseum featuring musicians selected in Melody Maker poll which produced 36,480 votes - Decca introduce Golden Era of Jazz series on Brunswick Cost of records goes up. example being is 6d to 2s, price 2s 5}d with tax Evelyn Dall, Anne Shelton and Max Bacon for Gainsborough film King Arthur Was A Gentleman Trombone "growler" Cootie Williams leaves Benny Goodman to form his own band.
FEBRUARY: Vera Lynn signs three-year contract for six films at an astronomical figure. Joe Loss cancels variety appearance at Marble Arch Regal because several of his sideman are called up, spotlighting a grave crisis for all bandleaders US fans vote Benny Goodman and Glenn Miller top bands in Metronome Poll Flight-Sgt Jack Hazelton, a member of the Radio Revellers until he entered RAF as bomber pilot, wins musical profession's first DFM Geraldo and members of his band form First ever co-op Swing Club to promote concerts for the fans Brains Trust panellist Sir Malcolm Sargent makes attack on swing music and is challenged by Geraldo, who offers to conduct his orchestra.
MARCH: Spencer Williams' jazz classic "Basin Street ball" is found 15 years after he wrote it and is broadcast and recorded by BBC's Radio Rhythm Club Sextet Melody Maker invites readers to choose all-star swing band and com- mercial band for Decca-Brunswick record to aid Merchant Navy Geraldo launches his co-operative Swing Club at London's Stoll Theatre on April 19.
APRIL: Great guitarist Charlie Christian, who sprang to fame on " Rose Room " with Benny Goodman Sextet in 1939, dies aged 26 Radio jazz debate between Jack Hylton and Sir Malcolm Sargent proves a fiasco Introduction of plastic saxophone reeds New West End night club, the Potomac, is opened with band led by sexist Marry Parry Geraldo plans series of popular music concerts called Sunday Serenade conducting 50-piece orchestra With purchase tax now doubled on musical instruments and records, a pre-war 70 costing is 6d has become 2s lOjd.
MAY: Bandleader Al Collins goes out on tour after 21 years at Claridge's, Berkeley and Savoy Hotels Rex Harris and Leslie Perowne start radio series The Story Of Jazz Singer Beryl Davis leaves Oscar Robin after eight years to star in new musical for C. B. Cochran Ambrose builds new variety act around singer Dorothy Carless and forms 17-piece all-star band for cine-variety season at Marble Arch Regal Troise and his Mandoliers have lucky escape as houses where they are staying are smashed in blitz on Bath.
JUNE: Jay Wilbur, recording manager for Decca, Brunswick and Rex, and MD of radio's Hi Gang, goes on tour with 13-piece band Benny Carter opens with his new band and vocalist Billie Holiday at Harlem's Apollo Ballroom Army musicians will no longer get a fee for service or civilian gigs while in uniform American Government's shellac restriction order will cut record production by 70 per cent. Sam Browne and Max Bacon form variety act with Gloria Brent.
JULY: Billy Cotton and Band have all their instruments, uniforms and music library destroyed in South Coast blitz American trumpet leader gunny Berigan dies. Ella Fitzgerald drops the late Chick Webb Band and starts work with the piano-guitar-bass Three Keys London Casino reopens as Queensbury All Services Club with big-band policy starting with Ambrose Boxing champion Jack Bloomfield re-opens Marble Arch Regal Ballroom with band supplied by Harry Roy Artie Shaw is to join US Navy Joe Loss and his Band play for 75,000 dancers doubling Glasgow Empire and neighbouring Green's Playhouse Ballroom BBC bans "sentimental slush" in dance band broadcasts Lil Armstrong writes her life story, 20 years in Swing Swing.
AUGUST: Trombone star Ted Heath, at present with Geraldo, forms his own 17-piece outfit for broadcasts Clarinet star Barney Bigard leaves Duke Ellington after 14 years to form his own band Singer Ray Eberle quits Glenn Miller after a series of squabbles. AFM bans all recording sessions because they take work away from musicians.
SEPTEMBER: Dorset' Brothers become fraternal again in music publishing venture. Pianist-leader George Scott-Wood gives up variety because "superior salaries to inferior musicians makes touring impossible " Jimmy Blanton, featured bassist with Duke Ellington, dies aged 24 Guitarist Alan Harrison, discovered in Melody Maker dance-band contest with Bob Lansley Sextet, joins Tim Clayton's Band at Lansdowne House. Jack Payne singer Bruce Trent to star opposite Frances Day in Dubarry Was A Lady.
OCTOBER: BBC music publishers and bandleaders discuss prevention of song plugging Tenor-saxist Johnnie Gray wins individual award with victorious Billy Monk's New Rhythm Band at Melody Maker All Britain Championship and becomes powerful featured soloist, notably with Ted Heath Ex-Jack Payne saxist, RN Acting Lieut George Wright wins DSC Army musicians can no longer do civilian gigs after December 31 Dutch jazz bassist 28-year-old Jaap Sajet, who escaped from Nazis in Holland, is killed in car crash in Britain.
NOVEMBER: American bandleaders Glenn Miller and Claude Thornhill disband to enter Forces Cotton Club dancer Lucille Wilson becomes third wife of trumpet celebrity Louis Armstrong Police raid closes Nut House night club, ousting Miff Ferric Band Singer Lena Horne joins Duke Ellington BBC acts against song plugging by limiting number of broadcasts permilted each day, but does nothing to prevent inducements RAOC's Blue Rockets lose stage, radio and recording commitments worth 1,000 when week's leave is cancelled for regimental dance Clyde "Sugar Blues" McCoy and Band join US Navy en bloc Dance band singer Robert Ashley is killed aged 28 while serving in the RAF.
DECEMBER: Ivy Benson and All Girls Band engaged as resident orchestra by BBC Charles- Chilton replaces Harry Parry as producer of BBC's Radio Rhythm Club Comedy bandleader Spike Jones gets his first hit record with " Der Fuhrer's Face " on Bluebird BBC appoints woman song plugger Tawny Neilson as Supervisor of Radio Dance Music Flying Officer John Emeny, one of the singing Four Aces, is killed serving 'in RAF Bandleaders condemn "poaching" of musicians from each other American bands fall apart as musicians are conscripted Distorted evening newspaper story claims young musicians earn 60 for 24-hour week when thousands over 45 are out-of-work rejects.

1943

JANUARY: Jazz veteran Eddie London scheduled for UK troop concerts sponsored by Coca Cola Rejection of music-dancing licence at Romano's Restaurant delays re-opening so trumpet-leader Johnny Claes goes into Astor Noted bassist Jack Morgan missing after ship is torpedoed off coast of Africa Musical profession objects to BBC residency by Ivy Benson All Girls Band, who are said to be working for less money than males and depriving them of jobs Elizabeth Batey. 23-year-old singer with Chappie D'Amato at Hatchett's, joins Joe Loss Trumpet stylist Dizzy Gillespie forms band for Down Beat Club, Philadelphia.
FEBRUARY: Percival Mackey elected president of Dance Band Directors Association. US night clubs hit by fire precaution requirements after Boston's Cocoanut Grove is destroyed with death toll of 500. Canadian pianist Art Thompson makes bandleading debut at Embassy Club, featuring 17-year-old tenor-saxist Kathy Stobart, who becomes exciting jazz soloist and leader RAOC's Blue Rockets to star in Ministry of Information film Swinging Into The Attack showing how service musicians are fully trained ready to fight, contesting national press smear " toy soldiers " Sunday Pictorial Dance Band Poll is headed by Victor Silvester. Zoot suits, swing music gear in States, banned at New York's Hotel Lincoln. where Harry James Band is resident Bob Crosby breaks up his band for solo contract in Hollywood. Songwriter Ralph ("Love In Bloom) Rainger dies in air crash at Palm Springs.
MARCH: Swing fans protestas BBC takes Radio Rhythm Club off the air for two months for "a routine rest" War Minister and MU make it clear that military duties are first priority of service musicians Victor Silvester signs new BBC contract guaranteeing four broad- casts a week. Saxist Burtin Gillis, best known for his long association with Henry Hall, dies aged 43.
APRIL: BBC limits scope of dance band vocalists and bans some of them, including Mae Cooper (Ivy Benson) and blind Peter Gray (Lew Stone) Unique musical transfer deal takes Melody Maker tenor sax discovery Johnnie Gray from Harry Leader at Charing Cross Road Astoria to Johnny Claes at Potomac for a substantial fee Warrant officer Jack Hazelton, one of the Radio Revellers and first musician to win DFM, is killed serving in RAF. Drummer-vocalist Cab Quaye makes bandleading debut at Orchard Club. Top Cuban bandleader Don Azpiazu dies Ray Mackinley and his Band enlist in US Marines. Drum star Gene Krupa on drugs charge in San Francisco Fire destroys Bing Crosby's 250,000 dollar home at lake Tolucco.
MAY: BBC Variety Dept, with Billy Ternent and his Band, moves back to London from air raid hide-out in Bangor AFM president James Petrillo discusses recording strike settlement Singer Ken Crossley, missing in Singapore, is safe as Japanese PoW Singer Anita O'Da'y quits the Gene Krupa Band to rest Drummer Buddy Rich joins Benny Carter at Los Angeles Swing Club Singer Georgina leaves Henry Hall for solo career. BBC Radio Rhythm Club comes back after two month absence on June 3 with tenor-saxist Buddy Featherstonhaugh's RAF Sextet containing such potential stars as guitarist Vic Lewis and drummer Jack Parnell Fats Walter breaks up his band for film work in Hollywood.
JUNE: Violinist Johnny Rosen, known chiefly for his long association with Jack Hylton, dies aged 45, after bandleading success in North of England Stories of top jazzmen, starting with eccentric old-timer Ted Lewis, envisaged for film series by Columbia Trumpet celebrity Valaida, taken prisoner by Germans in Copenhagen, is released on exchange basis after ill-treatment in concentration camp. BBC reinstates banned vocalists Mae Cooper and Alan Dean Band composed entirely of ex-servicemen led by trumpet-player Alec Cave starts off with broadcast.
JULY: Jazz trombonist Trummy Young quits Jimmy Lunceford Band After five years as producer-presenter of BBC's Radio Rhythm Club, Charles Chilton fails voice test and will no longer announce programme .. Police close Harlem's famous Savoy Ballroom because it is frequented by undesirables Brilliant young accordionist Johnny Weston is killed serving in the Fleet Air Arm Captain Glenn Miller's 30-piece service band makes radio debut on CBS Lunceford trumpet ace Eddie Tomkins is fatally wounded during army exercises.
AUGUST: Gene Krupa Band breaks up as ace drummer-leader gets 1-6 year jail sentence on drugs charge Temperamental trombonist Tommy Dorsey sacks entire band, including sidemen Ziggy Elman, Joe Bushkin and Buddy Rich Teddy Foster takes band into touring version of radio show Bandstand. Swing violinist Stephane Grappelly ends long run at Hatchetts to tour with his Swingtette and singer Beryl Davis and is replaced by clarinet-leader Frank Weir with singer Alan Kane.
SEPTEMBER: One-year-old AFM recording strike in States may end soon, encouraged by American Decca seeking a settlement ENSA books Geraldo and his entire band for two-month troop concert tour of the Middle East. Ivy Benson and Eric Winstone sign for HMV and Billy Ternent for Decca. Actor-singer Dick Haymes signs seven-year film contract with 20th Century Fox vocalist Anita O'Day joins Woody Herman Band.
OCTOBER: Geraldo sets off on Middle East ENSA tour two men short as guitarist Ivor Mairants and tenorist Harry Gold are refused exit permits without explanation Ciro's Club will re-open in November with a 14-piece band fronted by Maurice Winnick. Halted EMI sessions resume after agreement with MU that no British-made records will be sent to America during AFM recording dispute American vibist Red Norvo visits Europe with his septet to entertain forces Dance teacher Josephine Bradley creates a "genteel" version of the jitterbug.
NOVEMBER: Entire 7-piece band led by pianist Ron Beament killed or missing as sneak German raider bombs London dance club AFM president James Petrillo lifts US recording ban Saxist-arranger Flight-Lieut Alan Nichols presumed killed serving with RAF Wholesale changes in Benny Goodman Band. Lou Preager adopts revolutionary instrumentation of seven saxes, three trumpets and four rhythm at Hammersmith Palais. Death of veteran blues singer Trixie Smith Irving Berlin's all-soldier show This Is The Army starts 21-week run at London Palladium.
DECEMBER: Wisecracking pianist-composer, 39-year-old 18-stone Fats Waller dies Daddy of the Blues, W. C. Handy is gravely injured BBC "anti-slush" brigade bans No 1 American song "Paper Doll because it deals with "the fickleness of women" Pianist-arranger Stanley Black begins distinguished career as musical director. Drum star Buddy Rich is seriously hurt in Marine combat training Pianist-leader Phil Green tries West End Dixieland revival with early-style seven-piece band at Murray's Club Bomb-devastated Cafe de Paris may soon re-open as services club Singer Perry Como gets 50,000 dollars for two films Bing Crosby and Benny Goodman volunteer for overseas troop concerts.

1944

JANUARY: Jack Hylton nowestablished ass an impresario, goes back to bandleading for a short while with American radio series for NBC BBC replaces Forces Programme with General Overseas Service on February 27 Selmer reopen their blitzed HQ in London's Charing Cross Road Billie Rogers, first girl trumpeter featured by a name band, is leaving Woody Herman Red Nichols makes a bandleading comeback with 16-piece outfit for nationwide tour of America After 13 years as Melody Maker jazz critic, Mike retires because "jazz is a dead horse" Police raids close nightspots Dubarry, Reveille, Windmill and Gremlin Dixieland venture at Murray's Club is short-lived as guitarist-leader Roland Peachey replaces Phil Green.
FEBRUARY: BBC cuts down dance band broadcasts, starting with resident leader Geraldo, whose airings are reduced from nine to four a week Mills Brothers, out of work for some time since call-up of Harry Mills, resume with newcomer Gene Smith US piano ace Bob Zurke, who rose to fame with Bob Crosby, but suffered a tragic decline, dies aged 32 Parlophone make first records, by widely-acclaimed Vic Lewis-Jack Parnell Jazzmen one-time band leader Jan Ralfini, now manager and MD for comedian Tommy Trinder, makes comeback with 10-piece band at Bentall's Kingston.
MARCH: Billy Ternent resigns BBC resident bandleader post owing to ill health and is succeeded by Stanley Black Trumpeter Leslie "Diver" Hutchinson leaves Geraldo to lead all-star orchestra on tour for Ambrose London saxist Arthur Everett, Flight Engineer in RAF, wins DFM. Oscar Rabin starts 20-year-old saxist-arranger Wally Stott on his triple career as musician, orchestrator and conductor Esquire hooks New York Metroplitan Opera House for big jazz show featuring best musicians chosen by 16 leading critics.
APRIL: Harry Roy returns with his band from illness-stricken 20,000 mile Far East tour for ENSA, goes into musical play Six Pairs of Shoes at Playhouse and refuses to broadcast because the "BBC is killing dance music" Harrassed by constant deputy requests from his musicians, Maurice Winnick sacks his band at Ciro's Club and will concentrate on work for ENSA Vocalist Cyril Shane discharged from army disabled, is rejected by BBC although he did 200 broadcasts before enlistment Michael Flame, 36-year-old violinist-leader, is killed Benny Goodman disbands after heated dispute with his agents, MCA Swing drummer Gene Krupa joins Tommy Dorsey at 1,000 dollars a week Tenorist Sam Donahue takes over leadership of US Navy Band from ailing Artie Shaw.
MAY: Trumpet leader Harry James given three months to wind up his affairs before army conscription New evidence could free drum star Gene Krupa of marijuana rap. Red Nichols decides not to form a band and becomes sideman with Casa Loma Ork Squadronaires, Geraldo and Carl Barriteau voted top three in Melody Maker's 1944 Dance Band Poll London MU meeting over-rides committee penalties on star musicians Veteran New Orleans clarinettist, Jimmy Noone, dies aged 49 in Los Angeles BBC removes ban on vocalist Cyril Shane Decca signs Frank Deniz Swingtette.
JUNE: Benny Goodman will reform his band when free of disputed contract with MCA which caused him to quit BBC introduces Allied Expeditionary Forces Programme for D-Day second front troops . . Artie Shaw's Band, led by saxist Sam Donahue, visits Britain to play for US Forces Glenn Miller offered seven-year film contract with 20th Century Fox after demobilisation Jazz violinist Eddie South fronts 12-piece band for re-opening of America's famous Cotton Club.
JULY: Captain Glenn Miller and his 46-piece US Army Band arrive in Britain to play for AEF. Trombonist Juan Tizol leaves Duke Ellington after 15 years to join Harry James. Harry Roy opens his own night-club, the Milroy in Mayfair, fronting 14-piece band with- vocalist Marjorie Kingsley Naval. Sub Lieut Chick Henderson, handsome crooner featured by Joe Loss, is killed on active service in Britain. Lyons Popular Cafe in Piccadilly will become London's Stage Door Canteen. Gene Krupa is cleared of drug charge and re-forms his band.
AUGUST: American swing singer Dinah shore arrives in Britain to work for USO. Pianist-composer Billy Mayerl gives up his band at Grosvenor House through ill health and is succeeded by saxist Ralph Wilson. Glenn Miller concert at Haymarket Plaza raises 4,000 for Stage Door Canteen. BBC Band of Week resumes with Henry Hall and Victor Silvester. Veteran night club pianist and leader Barry Mill, famed musical raconteur, dies. Billy Cotton drummer Arthur Baker, serving in Merchant Navy, is reported missing, believed killed.
SEPTEMBER: Bing Crosby, 225,000-a-year singing star, arrives in London for USO and does first broadcast in Variety Bandbox. After long absence. Roy Fox broadcasts again in Anglo-American show from New York. Jimmy and Tommy Dorsey buy Hollywood's Casino Gardens Ballroom for 60,000 dollars and launch name band policy. Freddy Mirfield's Garbage men win Melody Maker Greater London Swing Band Championship and produce duce trumpet-leader Freddy Randall and saxist-composer-arranger conductor Johnny Dankworth Harry Roy makes up his financial dispute with BBC and goes back on air. Phil Seamen wins individual award with Len Reynolds and his Metro Band in Melody Maker Nottingham contest and becomes prodigious jazz drummer.
OCTOBER: BBC refuses tobroadcast Glenn Miller and American Band of AEF on Home Service because it is "unsuitable for the British public". Veteran drummer O'Neill Spencer, member of Mills Rhythm Band in 1931, dies. Joe Loss is first British name band to visit liberated Europe. Impresario Jack Hylton will stand for Parliament-as Labour candidate.
NOVEMBER: America's bitter two-year recording ban achieved AFM demand that all members get a fee for all music recorded. Dick Voynow,-pianist-leader of the pioneer Wolverines, dies in Los Angeles. Singer Billy Eckstine, who left Earl Hines to solo, is now fronting his own band on tour. Fred Waring, once-famous leader of the Pennsylvanians, resumes recording after 22-year absence with 50 sides for Decca. Glenn Miller and American Band of AEF start daily broadcasts on BBC Allied Forces Programme. After long absence Ambrose is back on air with 25-piece orchestra including singers Anne Shelton, Benny Lee and Denny Dennis. Melody Maker discloses secret document exposing Nazi attempts to crush jazz.
DECEMBER: Sickness forces Lew Stone to stop touring and break up his band until he recovers . Death of provincial bandleader Norman Chard Trombonist-leader Tommy Dorsey is reputed to be earning $165,817 a year. Trumpeter Roy Eldridge gives up own big band to join Artie Shaw at 500 dollars a week. Death of Happy Jones, 40-year- old bass with the Ink Spots. Belgium is setting up chain of super dance halls with name band policy for Allied troops on leave. Chicago clarinettist Rod Cless, best known for his recordings with Muggsy Spanier's Ragtimers, dies in New York aged 37. Major Glenn Miller is missing on flight to France to join his American Band of AEF, which is conducted on Christmas Day, broadcast from Paris by staff arranger Jerry Gray.

1945

JANUARY: No news of Glenn Miller, but AEF band fulfills troop Concert, in Europe fronted by Sgt Jerry Gray. Arnold (Tommy) Thorn" pianist with Louis Jordan, dies. Phil Green and George Elrick take their bands to France for ENSA. Lou Praeger has nervous breakdown after opening new London theatre-restaurant the Royalty. American company produces wire-coil recordings of performances by Red Nichols.
FEBRUARY: Bandleader Tommy Dorsey acquitted on charge of assaulting film actors Ed Norris and Jon Hall Bing Crosby makes far-reaching decision to cut studio applause out of his Kraft Music Hall radio show. Serious illness and major operation forces bandleader Billy Ternent to end his battle-front tour of Europe for ENSA Trumpet-leader Harry James cancels film contract with MGM and signs a one-year deal with 20th Century Fox, starting with a fee of 166,000 dollars for Kitten On The Keys Army officer bandleader Sydney Lipton is posted to ENSA's North West Europe HQ to organise bands to entertain troops in widely-scattered Allied Forces.
MARCH: MM draws attention to Canadian vocalist Paul Carpenter, who eventually achieves fame as singer and compere with Ted Heath. US guitarist-vocalist Johnny Marvin dies Music Trades Association asks Chancellor of Exchequer to alleviate crippling 100 per cent purchase tax on musical instruments Mecca begin big band policy at their dance halls starting with 24-piece led by trumpeter Teddy Foster at Covent Garden Opera House London pianist 23-year-old Cyril Leveson killed while climbing Ben Nevis Daily Express Poll seeking public reaction to proposed commercial radio shows 48 per cent Yes and 47 per cent No American jazz cornettist Jimmy McPartland weds British pianist Marion Page.
APRIL: Ivy Benson is first woman bandleader to lour Europe for ENSA. Bandleading old-timer Percy Bush dies aged 52 ... Celebrated concert singer Paul Robeson records with Count Basic Band Benny Goodman dispenses with his all-star sextet and once more forms a big band Death of pianist-arranger Clyde Hart Drummer Buddy Rich and clarinettist Buddy de Franco leave Tommy Dorsey Orchestra, which earned record one million dollars in 1944 Multi-instrumentalist Bob Easson, who became a band-leader after 12 years as second-in-command with Jack Payee, dies Eric Winstone. describing his wartime experiences as a bandleader, calls musicians "human cash registers" Clarinettist-leader Artie Shaw makes another of his controversial outbursts and calls jazz "a decaying art."
MAY: Ted Heath, featured trombonist with Gerdldo, leaves to accept increasing otters to form hiss own band Frank Morgan, 46-year-old pianist with Ronnie Munro Orchestra, dies South London semi-pro pianist-leader Bill Lc Sage gets honorary mention in MM Kodak Swing Band Championship and becomes notable jazz mulli-inslrumentalist American pianist Teddy Weatherford, who settled in India in 1938, dies Top musicians combine in 10,000 management enterprise called Music Corporation of America.
JUNE: Singer Billie Holiday, booked for cabaret at Plantation Club in St Louis, does only one show and quits after her white musician escort is forcibly ejected Salvador "Toots" Camarata arrives to produce series of film musicals in Britain Semi-pro pianist-leader Johnny Pearson wins special award with his Rhythm Makers at MM South East London Championship and becomes radio and television composer-arranger-MD, notably with lop of the Pops Red Nichols, trumpet-leader of the immortal Five Pennies, is to visit Britain for shows backed by bandleader-songwriter Ray Noble .. Lionel Hampton makes Carnegie Hall debut with programme ranging from wild, protracted version of "Flying Home" to sedate specialities by 32-piece string section.
JULY: Tommy Whittle, semi-pro tenor-saxist with Claude Giddings in Gillingham, makes significant start to his musical career by joining Carl Barriteau's Band. Hammersmith Palais and BBC launch 1,000 write-a-tune contest with entries played in 15-week radio series by resident leader Lou Preager. Ted Heath forms 20-piece band of hand-picked musicians to appear in big musical film London Town produced by Toots Camarata. Commercial broadcasting resumes with four hours a day by Spanish station Radio Andorra.
AUGUST: After a year in Europe, the American Band of the AEF sails for home with no news of their missing leader Glenn Miller. William Hannan, gig bandleader in Glasgow, is elected Labour M P for the Maryhill Division Tommy Dorsey is latest US leader to feature black-and-white brass section, bringing in coloured trumpeter Charlie Shavers Nick La Rocca, father of New Orleans trumpet playing, is now working as a decorator but still blows occasionally. Capitol issue 40 records covering a short History of Jazz. Bob Crosby's Bob Cats, fronted by one-armed hot trumpeter and humorist Wingy Manone, leave shortly for Anglo-American troop concerts in Europe.
SEPTEMBER: Lionel Hampton is offered 15,000 dollars, biggest fee ever paid to any band, for October appearance at Los Angeles Orpheum. After an absence of six years, Ambrose returns to West End on October 8, with 15-piece band at Ciro's Club. Lew Stone recalls some of his original musicians for resident job at Embassy Club.
OCTOBER: Hollands most famous dance band the Ramblers, are banned from Stage, screen and radio for three years for allegedly collaborating with the Nazis Big civilian plans for demobilising Squadronaires, who are working on co-operative basis and have signed three-year recording contract with Decca. Orpington's Eltham Studio Band wins MM, AlI Britain Championship which produces famous composer-arranger-con-ductors Ron Goodwin and Alan Moorhouse. Pianist Billy Munn makes bandleading debut at Mayfair's Orchid Room. George Gershwin's life story is told in new film Rhapsody In Blue, featuring Paul Whiteman Orchestra.
NOVEMBER: Outstanding recording of "Opus One" wins two-year contract with Decca for bandleader Ted Heath, who starts his historic long-running Sunday swing shows at the London Palladium New singing discovery Steve Conway joins Ambrose and records solo for Columbia, developing into a national favourite. Prolific songwriter Jerome Kern dies. Red-tape passport problems stop British bands from accepting big offers on the Continent. MM asks why there was no dance band in the Royal Variety Performance.
DECEMBER: Geraldo signs new vocal discovery Dick James, who eventually gives up successful singing career for music publishing and pop star management. Hammersmith Palais Write-A-Song contest broadcast by Lou Preager is won by South Londoners Eily Beadell and Nelly Tollerton with immediate hit ''Cruising Down The River ". Triumphant stage debut for the three Beverley Sisters, who perfected a vocal harmony act while doing war work in the Midlands. Ace vibist Red Norvo leaves Benny Goodman to join Woody Herman.

1946

JANUARY: AFM bans broadcasts to America by foreign musicians and first British casualty is Stanley Black and his Orchestra in BBC-NBC show Atlantic Spotlight . . Hammersmith Palais boss Claude Langdon envisages broadcasting tour of USA and Canada for resident leader Lou Preager, with reciprocal booking of Harry James, Artie Shaw, Benny Goodman and Count Basic. Squadronaires start big variety tour and follow with summer at Butlin's, Clacton. BBC will no longer give broadcasts to " scratch " bands with no regular leaders. Death of American trumpeter Bobby Stark, sideman with Fletcher Henderson from 1928-1934. Write-A-Tune discovery " Cruising Down The River " sells 45,000 copies of sheet music in week.
FEBRUARY: Return of Roy Fox after eight years in Australia and America causes heated controversy among musicians and leaders and is vigorously opposed by Billy Cotton. French jazz guitarist Django Reinhardt arrives in London to form quintet with hot violinist buddy Stephane Grappelly, but becomes seriously ill. MU comes out in support of AFM radio ban, calling it " sound and justifiable ". BBC moves to stop " sessioneering " by introducing two-month resident seasons for dance bands starting on April 2 with Harry Roy Young tenor-saxist Ronnie Scott gets his first big break with an offer to join Ted Heath.
MARCH: Bandleader Joe Loss flays modern ballroom jive, which " could cause the profession irreparable damage". MU demands " live " music on the radio, declaring " recordings are no longer justi-fied ". Blue Rockets, direc-ted by Eric Robinson, turn down stage work to concentrate entirely on radio. Glenn Miller drummer Ray McKinley forms his own band, starts recording for Majestic and opens at New York's Hotel Commodore Despite representations by MU, Home Office grants work permit to Roy Fox. Butlins book 10 bands and 160 musicians for summer season at their holiday camps, APRIL: Tenor-saxist-arranger A George Evans forms 23-piece band featuring 10 saxophones. Jack Payne disbands but denies retirement. One-man one-job MU campaign gather momentum. Geraldo will be first bandleader featured who BBC-TV resumes on June 7 after six and a half year black-out. Purchase Tax on musical instruments and gramophone records is reduced from 100 per cent to 33 per cent. Radio's "laughing" conductor Charles Shadwell gives up BBC Variety Orchestra after 10 years to go on tour.
MAY: Jazz Jamboree honour are stolen by terrific girl tenorist Kathy Stobart with Art Thompson Quartet. Heavy weight xylophonist and one-time bandleader Teddy Brown dies of heart attack aged 45. Guitarist-leader Vic Lewis renounces jazz to lead a sextet a la Mel Powell. Expanding on his explosive comment, " Dixieland is dated - hail be-bop." on BBC's Radio Rhythm Club, Seymour Wise writes about the New Jazz evolved by trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie. Saxist-leader Paul Lombard gets six-month contract for resident work and radio in Beirut, Syria.
JUNE: French bandleader Ray Ventura brings his Collegians over for a six-day tour of Britain. Dance band musicians augment Liverpool Philharmonic for concerts with visiting US conductor Andrea Kostelanetz but proposed broadcast falls through when BBC offers only 250 for his 2 hour session with the 96-piece orchestra. Exclusive contract with Stoll Theatres prevents Ivy Benson from televising. Duke Ellington hears Dizzy Gillespie at Spotlight Club on 52nd Street and says be-bop is "stimulating and original."
JULY: Disillusioned by postwar difficulties, Nat Gonella threatens to retire Felix Mendelssohn televises with his Hawaiian Serenaders despite enforcement of 32-week theatre ban Sid Millward and his Nitwits begin long-running radio show, Ignorance Is Bliss Belgian MU bans British bands until there is a reciprocal agreement Trumpet-player with Al Powell and his Band, winners of MM Merseyside contest, is future sessioneer and bandleader Syd Lawrence Walt Disney brings jazz into his cartoons with interpretations of Benny Goodman Quartet playing " After You've Gone " in Make Mine Music London Philharmonic Orchestra forms a swing section.
AUGUST: Tricky Sam Nanton, long-term trombone star with Duke. Ellington, dies Ted Heath (swing) and Geraldo (sweet) win MM 1946 Dance Band Poll MM launches British sheet music Hit Parade Trombonist Eric Tann leaves for Australia to lead a big band for state and commercial radio, undeterred by Aussie MU demand that visiting musicians must fulfill one year residence before being admitted to membership French MU bans summer season by Maurice Winnick Band at Beauville Casino Veteran bandleader Jay Wilbur emigrates to New Zealand and will form big straight orchestra for commercial radio.
SEPTEMBER: New York dance musicians strike for better wages and get a 20 per cent increase Jack Harris comes back to Europe after six years in States and takes a 15-piece band into Les Ambassadeurs in Paris Washington's Smithsonian Institute asks Dizzy Gillespie 'to make recording of be-bop for posterity Django Reinhardt Fixes one month contract in America with Duke Ellington Tex Beneke opens six-week season at Hollywood Palladium with 34-piece Glenn Miller Orchestra Kenny Clare wins individual award with Will de Barr's Royal Forest Hotel Band in MM North East London Championship and becomes dynamic session drum- mer Beirut Police Veto Egyptian tour by saxist-leader Frank Weir.
OCTOBER: Skyrockets, resident band at London Palladium, will provide accompaniment for Royal Command Performances. Buddy Featherstonhaugh takes his jazz sextet on four of Iceland in November MM dance band contests bring professional success for trumpet-player Dennis Shirley and plenty of gigs for semi-pro bandleader Johnny Stiles MU orders band off liner Queen Elizabeth four days before maiden voyage but gains last minute improvement of rates and conditions. Jack Hylton is forming 24-piece all-girl band for tour of Europe BBC axes Swing Session and Radio Rhythm Club.
NOVEMBER: Ted Heath signs five-year contract with Decca and makes fighting reply to allegations that British musicians are lazy, made by Ambrose and Geraldo while on holiday in America Colour-bar clause by dance hall managements threatens break-up of Leslie (Diver) Hutchinson's all star all-black band Big slump in the States causes disbandment by Benny Goodman, Harry James, Tommy Dorsey and Les Brown MU bars visit of Don Redman. Band and return of Toots Camarata to orchestrate for Decca Blues queen Mammie Smith dies after lengthy career starting with hits for Okeh in 1920 Up-and-coming drummer Eric Delaney joins Geraldo.
DECEMBER: Bandleaders attend London mass meeting called by Lou Preager and form get-tough committee to negotiate better terms with BBC Radio Luxembourg goes back on air with Billy Ternent and his Band sponsored by bookmakers William Hill BBC introduces Northern Band of the Week and starts with MM contest discovery Eddie McGarry Back from States, Geraldo denies laziness quote about musicians in Britain London's Stage Door Canteen closes on December 26 American swing fans shattered by break up of Woody Herman Band . Tommy Dorsey arranger Sy Oliver forms his own band.

1947

JANUARY; Duke Ellington sweeps Down Beat Poll, winning sweet and swing sections Trombonist Woolf Phillips forms 19-piece all-star band to create new sound in swing music MU forms a Dance Band Directors Association, which at once trains its guns on BBC John Blanchard, 21-year-old drummer with pianist-leader Peggy Poulton, is tipped for success by MM and becomes much-sought-after sessioneer Saxist-leader Harry Hayes quits Churchill's in row over working conditions Squadronaires do a new kind of gig, playing at soccer cup tic between QPR and Middlesborough.
FEBRUARY: National fuel crisis causes cuts in radio, recording and TV and -loss of MM for two weeks George Evans disbands his 10-sax ultra-modern orchestra. discouraged by lack of supprt from BBC West End slump ends 18 month sojourn at Giro's Club for Ambrose and his 500 a week 17-piece band Sunday afternoon Swing Shop is launched in London by guitarist and promoter Sid Gross 8utlins book Squadronaires, Eric Winstone, Ronnie Munro and Nat Temple for summer season Eddie Cornish, spotted by MM as 16-year-old drummer with Hal Swain before war, breaks into big-time in BBC- TV orchestra conducted by Eric Robinson. Eric Winstone blazes trail to Czechoslovakia with his 15-piece band.
MARCH: Maurice Winnick, who played at Giro's Club in 1932 and 1943, completes hat trick by returning there to, Ambrose BBC increases air time for dance bands and launches long-lasting Jazz Club, hosted by clarinet-leader Harry Parry Rising costs force American leader Claude Thornhill to break up his 22-piece band and form a smaller outfit Teddy Foster Band is last big show to be sent out to troops in Mediterranean area Comedy band, Doctor Crock and his Crackpots, formed by saxist-arranger Harry Hines. Cornettist Humphrey Lyttelton, whose hand has been playing at Hot Club of London, joins George Webb's Dixielanders. Tenor-saxist Ronnie Scott moves from Ted Heath to Jack Jackson.
APRIL: MU and DBDA bans American bandleader Jack Harris from working in Britain while there is no Anglo-US reciprocal agreement US stars due in Britain include Lena Horne, Andrews Sisters and Count Basie Band Bandleader Felix Mendelssohn tires of 'long battle with GTC and accepts their exclusive clause preventing appearances on TV Music industry protests at budget which taxes tools-of-trade instruments as luxury- bracket toys. Pete King wins tenor-sax award with Stan Fry Band in MM North London Championship and becomes big-band colleague and jazz club partner of tenorist Ronnie Scott. MAY: BBC reinstates Radio Rhythm Club, which has been off the air since October 1945 Don Rendell, young tenor-saxist with Oscar Robin, moves towards modern-jazz recognition Decca will market USA's jazz-orientated Commodore Records L-A leader Edmundo Ros leaves Churchills to return to Astor with "rumba priority "clause in his contract Trumpet-leader Freddy Randall will represent Britain at world art festival in Belgium in June.
JUNE: Jazz singer Billie Holiday is jailed for a year on narcotics charge Lou Levy, head of Leeds. Music in America, aims to achieve five-band Anglo-USA exchange Death of 64-year-old composer-bandleader-publisher Herman Darewski Chicago bandleader Sam Cassato invents a non-skid device for bass drums MM contributor Peter Tanner accurately predicts world fame as musician-composer-conductor for 18-year-old piano prodigy Andre Previn.
JULY; Britain's ace musicians jam at capacity audience MM-Columbia Jazz Rally at EMI's, St Johns Wood Studios American trombonist-vocalist Jack Teagarden wants to play in England but his visit may be opposed by MU. AFM president James Petrillo threatens to stop recording after December 31 as retaliation against controversial bill affecting royalties - Geraldo supplies three bands for first post-war passenger voyage of Queen Mary. American bandleader 45-year-old Jimmie Lunceford dies.
AUGUST: Duke Ellington breaks with Musicraft after months of bickering and will now record for Columbia Pianist-trombonist Abe Waiters starts his night-club bandleading career as Don Carlos, doubling Ciro's and Embassy, Club BBC aims to stamp out song plugging by increasing dance band fees and threatening to suspend anyone who accepts bribes London Casino books Inkspots for 4-week, season starting September 1. Billy Butlin tells MM why he is paying 4,500 a week for dance music at his holiday camps.
SEPTEMBER: Roy Fox ends summer season at Douglas and disbands, proposing to form a new-style sweet-music orchestra. Inkspots stop the show (and the traffic) with jam-packed ovation at London Casino, but refuse to double at suburban urban theatres, necessitating four shows in three and a half hours , Woody Herman, after eight months as singer and DJ, reforms his band and recalls arranger Ralph Burns. Canadian pianist-composer-arranger Bob Farnon leaves Geraldo to start his career as firm, radio and recording MP. Jazz makes a comeback in States after several months in the doldrums.
OCTOBER: Pianist George Shearing makes exploratory trip to States which develops into permanent residence and widespread acclaim . . American singing star Lena Horne is booked for London Casino in November. Bandleader Joe Loss claims tax assessments are disrupting musical profession. Music publishers book five bands for their first Tin Pan Alley Ball, an annual event which lasted for many years. US record industry puts up prices to meet increased Costs and general trade recession.
NOVEMBER: Ted Heath takes over and will present Ray Ellington Quartet and Tito Burns Accordion Club Sextet. MM revives pre-war countrywide rhythm club movement starting with No. 1 in London. US bandleaders approve AFM chief James Petrillo's recording ban, which poses for our own musicians choice of support or blackleg. Django Reinhardt and Stephane Grappelly re-unite in Hot Club of France for first time in eight years. Budget puts up record prices 3d-6d.
DECEMBER: Joe Loss will augment his band to 26 for big Aquashow at Earls Court in February. Ivy Benson goes back on TV after one-year absence caused by exclusive theatre clause. Tremendous debut at New York's Commodore Theatre by Stan Kenton's new 10-brass band, described by MM's Leonard Feather as "loudest in jazz history" Ted Heath, Geraldo and Jack Parnell win MM 1947 Dance Band Poll. MU approves British Visit by Dizzy Gillespie Band for "a few concerts" Singer Beryl Davis starts 13-week radio series with Frank Sinatra in America.

1948

JANUARY: Bandleaders back MU and refuse to broadcast if present ban on theatre out- side broadcasts is extended to hotels, restaurants and dance halls. Harry Leader refuses to do a BBC audition after he has been on the air for 14 years Musical. policy discontent causes break-up of George Webb's Dixielanders and cornettist Humphrey Lyttelton forms own band with same front line Stan Kenton lops Down Beat and Metronome Polls Zero hour m US cording ban.
FEBRUARY: Dizzy Gillespie Band, due in Britain on March 2, are refused work permit by Ministry of labour under ban on entry of American bands operating since 1935 Patomac ends dancing and dispenses with Roy Fox Band Billy Penrose Swing quartet subjected to Arab fire while touring Palestine Death of pioneer jazz promoter and singer 46-year-old Red McKenzie Bad weather prevents Geraldo flying his entire band in four aeroplanes to a one-night-stand in Guernsey. Butlins book Squads, Eric Winstone, Ivy Benson and Ronnie Munro for summer season.
MARCH: American vocal harmony quartet the Merry Macs start four-week season at London Palladium - Lead-alto Ken Mackintosh leaves Frank Weir's Band at Lansdown House to make his bandleading debut with 15-piece progressive band at Greyfriars Hall, Nottingham Harry Leader resolves his tiff with BBC over audition refusal and goes back on air . Red Hot Momma Sophie Tucker returns to Britain after 12 years to appear at London Casino. British singer Denny Dennis leaves for States to join Tommy Dorsey Orchestra in Miami. Trumpet-leader Leslie Hutchinson decides to drop the title " Jiver " MU bans all outside broadcasts after April 30 unless BBC improves terms and conditions.
APRIL: Dispute between MU and BBC now involves television Music trade faces serious situation as purchase tax on instruments is increased from 50 per cent to 66, per cent Big American Jazz attractions scheduled for Sunday concerts in Paris - BBC producer Mark White starts controversy by booking electric organist Robin Richmond for Jazz Club. BBC and music publishers reach agreement over song plugging with heavy penalties for offenders MM sponsors National Federation Of Jazz Clubs in Britain.
MAY: BBC closes its Dance Band Dept, run by Mrs Tawny Neilson, who now becomes a producer, and appoints 45-year-old Australian ex-bandleader Jim Davidson Assistant Head of Variety, supervising all danceband broadcasts Henry Hall announces big plans including presentation of his own band, at Blackpool's Grand Theatre, where he is MD After 20 years leading a big band, Cab Galloway cuts to a 7-piece comprising his key musicians Vic Lewis, Ray EIIington and Harry Gold shine in below standard Jazz Jamboree.
JUNE: London Palladium books Pearl Bailey, Phil Harris, Maxine Sullivan, Tony Martin and Dinah Shore. MU takes drastic action in salary dispute with BBC, ordering strike by all broadcasting bands starting July 31 After long Illness, veteran bandleader Debroy Somers makes comeback as MD of summer show at Blackpool Hippodrome Tenor-saxist Kenny Graham leaves Nat Gonella's Georgians to pioneer Afro-Cuban music with his own sextet Duke Ellington arrives for two weeks as piano soloist at London Palladium.
JULY: Duke Ellington tours Britain and Continent with singers Ray Nance and Kay Davis and Britain's Jack Fallon Trio. Benny Goodman opens with his new octet at Westchester Country Club, just outside New York Bandleader Harry Roy weds his former vocalist 27-year-old Sonia Stacpool. Guitarist and whistler Johnny Denis popularises Western and Hillbilly music with his six-piece Ranchers. American Columbia introduce first long-plaing microgroove records giving 27 minutes on 10 inch and 95 minutes on 12 inch. Settlement is reached on eve of radio strike as BBC agrees to arbitration in feud with MU over better terms and conditions.
AUGUST: Ted Heath adds bongoes and will make big fea- ture of Latin-American music Andrews. Sisters are tremendous success at London Palladium Authentic calypso singer Lord Beginner arrives to tour, record and broadcast. BBC gives provincial dancebands national air recognition. Personality singer Cab Kaye leaves Tito Burns Sextet to from his own band. BBC makes first real attempt to popularise bebop with 40 minute broadcast by Harry Hayes Octet and Frank Weir Orchestra. MU forbids members to record with visiting American artists during AFM gramophone dispute in States.
SEPTEMBER: Henry Hall will, tour with big band production It's On The Air after his summer season in Blackpool. Cyril Stapleton augments from 10 to 14 and goes all out with a big band policy. Harry Roy ends one-year variety tour and disbands to take honeymoon vacation in USA and discuss ambitious film project offering 30,000 Ella Fitzgerald arrives in Britain with Gillespie bassist-husband Ray Brown and starts variety tour in Glasgow accompanied by Mississippi pianist Hank Jones Oscar Rabin discovers outstanding-new vocalist, sixteen and a half-year-old Marion Davis, at Sunderland's Seaburn Hall.
OCTOBER: Blitzed Cafe de Paris reopens with bands led by violinist George Colborn and drummer Johnny Kerrison Ted Heath, Henry Hall and Skyrockets are chosen for Royal Command Performance . Mark White, producer of BBC Jazz Club since it started in March 1947, leaves to become production manager at Empress Hall, Earls Court Ace altoist Johnny Hodges quits Duke Ellington Ork after 20 years to form his own band.
NOVEMBER: Roy Fox will present band and circus in glass Big Top at Murray's club Drummer Basil Kirchin leaves band led by his father Ivor at Strand Lyceum to open with his own all star sextet at Tottenham Court Road Paramount - Accordionist-leader Tito Burns weds his voc- alist, Terry Devon Ambrose makes comeback in West End after 15 month absence with 18-piece band at Nightingale Saxist-leader Dixie Dean debuts with band of seven men and seven women .. BBC puts jazz on its Third Programme with six half-hour weekly broadcasts by the Vic Lewis Orchestra, featuring tenor-Saxist Kathy Stobart America's 11-month recording strike ends with acceptance of higher salaries by AFM Trumpet star Kenny Baker leaves Ted Heath and is replaced by Canadian Mo Miller.
DECEMBER: BBC Band Parade comes off air after unbroken run of almost two years Cuban musician Chano Pozo, who played bongoes for Dizzy Gillespie, is murdered by a gunman while drinking at a bar in New York Reedist Jack Scott becomes first British bandleader to play in Bahamas, tak- ing 9-piece to Fort Montague Hotel, Nassau, for Butlin's Dance musicians are routed in MU elections Death of pioneer jazz drummer 40-year-old Dave Tough New licensing bill may close night clubs and bottle parties.

1949

JANUARY: Progressive jazz pioneer Stan Kenton quits music to study psychiatry. A few days after ringing' MM to deny practical joker rumours of his death, John Haim, 20-year-old cornet-leader of the Jelly Roll Kings, dies suddenly at his London home. Roy Fox quits short-lived Circus Room at Murray's Club. MM starts 21st year of dance-band contests. which have discovered such stars as Harry Parry, Denny Dennis, George Ekrick, Harry Gold, Jack White, Freddy Gardner, Ivor Mairants and Johnnie Gray. FEBRUARY: Billy Cotton starts 12-week Sunday radio series described as " dance music with accent on comedy," which paves the way for his perennial Billy Cotton Band show. MM warns amplified guitarists of electrocution danger. Harry Roy returns to his old haunt, the Cafe Anglais, with a 15-piece band at 550 a week Nat Gonella and Teddy Foster will be resident leaders when London's historic Wimbledon Palais re-opens on March 9. Joe Loss recovers from illness and starts country-wide tour with new band show compered by increasingly-popular Radio Eiream quizmaster Eamonn Andrews.
MARCH: Long-awaited appearance of American singing star Frank Sinatra is fixed for London Palladium starting July 4. Ted Heath signs one-time theatre call boy Dickie Valentine, 19-year-old singer and impressionist at the Blue Lagoon. NFJO will stage its first Jazz Band Ball, with Freddy Randall, Humphrey Lyttelton and Tito Burns, at Leyton Baths on April 7. Ambrose tires of late-night bottle-party work and will leave the Nightingale on April b but retain his band for big new plans.
APRIL: -Blues singer Billie Holiday faces drugs charge in San Francisco and is refused police permit to play New York's Royal Roost . . . Vic Lewis Orchestra and small mod- ern outfit led by drummer Carlo Krahmer will represented Brit- ain at Paris Jazz Festival. MSBC loses 2,000 on 12-band Musicians. Hall which draws only 1,000 people to 6,000-capacity Empress Hall Debut of George Shearing Quintet at New York's Cafe Society,
MAY: Outside broadcasts resume as MU and BBC reach agreement after an 18-month war " Of course I'd play the Hokey-Cokey if dancers wanted it" says Ted Heath. Phenomenal opening by 3,500-dollar-a-week Billy Eckstine at Broadway's Paramount Theatre Saxophone " dynamo " Illinois Jacquet is scheduled for 4-month European tour at 500 a concert, but cannot bring his band to Britain - British bands get rough treatment and Vic Lewis is labelled "too progressive " at Paris Festival , Grosvenor House bandleader Syd Lipton switches from sweet to swing, dropping strings in favour of brass.
JUNE: Eve Boswell, a singing favourite in her native South Africa, joins Geraldo and achieves solo recording success Broadway's jazz haunt, the Royal Roost, closes down after switching from bop to revue. Dance bands make do with makeshift transport during widespread rail strike . Unpre- dictable bandleader Artie Shaw, who said he would devote him-self to classical music, goes back to jazz Death of veteran N.O. trumpeter Kid Rena and night club entrepreneur Dicky Wells Ministry of Labour grants work permit to Benny Goodman only for solo variety artist confined to appearance at London Palladium San Francisco jury acquits Billie Holiday of opium charge.
JULY: Ace clarinetist Danny Polo dies Louis Armstrong All Stars approached for tour of Europe in September MU bans backing of Benny Goodman by all-star British contingent led by trumpeter Kenny Baker. so he plays London Palladium accompanied by his pianist-vocalist Buddy Greco and the resident Skyrockets Death of pioneer New Orleans trumpet-leader Bunk Johnson Saxist-leader Frank Weir flies 4-Beater monoplane in King's Cup air race Saxist arranger George Evans makes bandleading comeback with orthodox " 18-piece orchestra; Duke Ellington signs his first bop musician, trumpeters Dave Burns.
AUGUST: London jazz clubs ' are threatened by thugs. The Delta Rhythm Boys arrive for music-hall tour Big break opportunity backing US singer Frances Longford on radio for new vocal group fro" ' Lancashire, the Kordites Death of American trombonist-arranger Eddie de Lange. Bassist Frank Clark e, who played for Teddy Hill and Buddy Johnson, is murdered in California.
SEPTEMBER: BBC declines to broadcast 11th annual Jazz Jamboree because it would have "minority audience appeal". After two years as MD of Annie Get Your Gun. Lew Stone suddenly leaves to take rest cure in Switzerland Stan Kenton forms 25-piece band built around South American pianist. Rene Touzet Death": of US jazz veterans 49-year-old cornettist Paul Mares and 64-year-old clarinettist Big Eye Louis Nelson.
OCTOBER: Ted Heath and Geraldo bands to star is patois romance musical called Dance Hall to be filmed by. Michael Balcon at Ealing Studios Prices tumble at Radio-olympia, with TV sets at 40. and tape-recorders at 16. Quaglinos brings back the 1920 sound with Dixieland Five led by pioneer jazz drummer Cecil Black. Hollywood plane crash kills US hit singer 38-year-old Buddy Clark Bop invades Jazz Jamboree and top honours are shared by Ray EIIington and Ken Mackintosh. Trombonist-comedian Geoff Love leaves Harry Gold's Pieces of Eight for prosperous career as composer-arranger-conductor.
NOVEMBER: Benny Goodman and Charlie Barnet bands break up owing to depressed state of music business in States. US clarinettist Sidney Bechet guests at Sunday concert presented by London Jazz Club at Drury Lane Winter Garden Django Reinhardt records for first time on amplified guitar Henry Hall revives his radio Guest Night after five years with 20-piece band led by pianist-arranger Bert Marland " Bebop? One long search for the right note," says Louis Armstrong Eric Winstone drops five-year-old uncompromising commercial policy in favour of progressive music Saxist-leader Johnny Dankworth forms his historic modern jazz Seven.
DECEMBER: American blues singer and 12-string guitar exponent Huddie " Leadbelly " Ledbetter dies aged 44. Harry Parry Sextet and Ray Ellington Quartet take part in Anglo-Dutch band exchange with Holland's ultra-modern Johnny Meyer Quintet. Fake coupons used in vain attempt to rig MM 1949 Dance Band Poll, which is won by Ted Heath, Geraldo, Ray Ellington and Edmundo Ros. Woody Herman dispenses with his big band and concentrates on his seven-piece all star Woodchoppers. Coleman Hawkins does two concerts in London with US bop drummer Kenny Clarke and French pianist Jean Mengeon and bassist Pierre Michelot. Death or boogie woogie pianist 42-year-old' Albert Ammons.


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